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AVESTA READER 



FIRST SERIES 



EASIER TEXTS, NOTES, AND VOCABULARY 



I BY 

\ 



A. V. WILLIAMS JACKSON 

OF COLUMBIA COLLEGE, NEW YORK CITY 



STUTTGART 

\V. K O H L H A M M E R 
1893 



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This little book is inscribed in remembrance 
of the late 

Kommerzienrat W. Kohlhammer 

as a token of regard. 



280333 

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Preface. 



This little book lays no claim to any special merit 
beyond furnishing in convenient form some material for 
those beginning to study the Avesta. As it is intended 
merely for an introduction, and being designed as the 
first of a series of reading books, the number of pages 
of texts has been limited. The selections here given arc 
such as may easily be mastered by a class in one college 
term; the beginner, moreover, always finds a certain de- 
gree of pleasure and satisfaction in a book that can be 
read through in a comparatively short time» and he feels 
he is making a certain amount of progress Avhen another 
)M)ok has to be taken up. With that in view, a second 
volume is being prepared, this will contain longer texts 
and will be so arranged as to imply a step in advance. 

The present selections in prose and verse, are fairly 
representative, as far as excerpts can be, of Yasna, Vis- 
parad, Yasht, and Vendidad. The chapters Ys. 26 and 57 
are given complete. The passage from Vd. xg has the 
advantage of presenting a specimen of texts in which 
grammatical decay is to be observed. 

The notes in general have been made brief and con- 
cise, but it is hoped that beside being explanatory they 
will also prove useful in giving the student an occasional 



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vi Preface. 

hint regarding books of reference, and will thus interest 
him in the literature of the subject. A brief list of useful 
books has already been given in Avesta Grammar Part i, 
p. xl-xlii. Attention is now also called to the new Avesta 
translation by Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta (3 volumes, 
Paris 1892-3), the last two volumes of which reached me 
after the greater part of the present book was already in 
press; I was pleased, however, to note several co-incidences 
in interpretation of certain Yasht and Vendidad passages. 

The vocabulary has been made a little more full 
perhaps than is necessary; but this was done from a de- 
sire to give the beginner a fair start. It seemed advis- 
able, for example, to add frequent grammatical references, 
and to designate the verb forms in full. A slightly dif- 
ferent plan will be followed in the Second Series. 

With regard to the etymologies in the vocabulary, 
comparison has been confined to Sanskrit, Old Persian, 
Pahlavi, and New Persian. It is presupposed, of course, 
that the student has made some progress in Sanskrit. The 
comparisons with Old Persian, Pahlavi and New Persian 
are added, not at all with the idea tliat they will be 
mastered by a beginner, but in order to show the pupil 
the importance of the Iranian as well as the Sanskrit 
side of interpretation, and to familiarize him with the 
studies next akin to his subject. Old Persian is easily 
mastered after Avestan, and the earnest student will soon 
discover that the well-equipped scholar can not of course 
long dispense with Pahlavi and New Persian. The * tradi- 
tional' and * comparative ' method must go hand in hand. 

In preparing the book I have had before me VV. Geigcr's 
Handbuch der Awestasprache, the manual with which I 
first began my Avesta studies. Of course C. de Harlez' 



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Preface. vii 

Manuel de VAvesta, and Bartholomae's Altiranische Dia- 
lekte have been often consulted. Justi's Handbuch der 
Zendsprache was necessarily used at every step; and 
Lanman's admirable Sanskrit Reader furnished many a 
hint or apt English rendering for kindred Avesta-Sanskrit 
words. The material for comparison with Old Persian 
was drawn from Spiegel's Altpersische Keilinschriften ; 
and that for comparison with Pahlavi words, mainly 
from West's Glossary and Index of Arda Vtraf. In 
the case of New Persian, reference was made to Vullefs' 
Lexicon Persico-Latinum and to Palmer's Persian-English 
Dictionary. Paul Horn's new Grundriss der Neupersislhen 
Etymologic (Strassburg 1893) came late but liappily as I 
was reading the final revision of the proof-sheets of the 
vocabulary ; from tliis source, therefore, a number of good 
additions were made. To each of the above authors I 
desire to made cordial acknowledgment. To my friend 
Professor Karl F. Geldner my sincerest thanks as always 
are due. 

With this word* and with the hope that scholars will 
give their helpful criticism, corrections and suggestions, 
which I shall gladly and personally acknowledge, this little 
Avesta Reader is started on its course. 

A. Y. Williams Jackson 

September 1893. Columbia College 

Npw York Cut. 



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Contents. 



PREFACE V-VIl 

TEXTS t— 33 

TRANSCRIPTION OF AVKSTAN ALPHABET 34 

ABBREVfATlONS 36 

NOTES ON THE TEXTS 37—48 

VOCABULARY 49—112 



Selection of Texts. 



Yasna 

(1) Ys. ix.i-8. 

(2) Ys. 26.1-1 1. 

(3) Vs. 57-2-34. 

Vispanid 

(4) Vsp. 15.1-3. 

Yashts 

(5) Yt. 5.1-9, 132. 

(6) Yt. X4.1-17. 
Vendidad 

(7) Yd. 3-23-29. 

(8) Vd. 6.44-St. 
{9) Vd. 19.5.10. 



Duty towards the cow, the horse, and 

Haoma . . » 3—5 

Sacrifice and praise to the Fravashis . . 5-8 

Praise of the Angel Sraosha S — 17 

Exhortation to righteousness and worship iS 

Praise of the Goddess of Waters .... 19 — 23 

Six incarnations of the Genius of Victory 23 — 27 

The blessings of agriculture 28 — 30 

Origin of the Towers of Silence 30— 3' 

The temptation of Zoroaster 32—33 



^•^w-vA A f\f\/\J\r^ 



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TEXTS. 



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• ^'^ YASNA. 

L 
Yasna ii. 

The cow, horse, Haoma, if misused, utter imprecations. 
The homage due to Haoma. 

JOOriO^-^l^-^^cJ -^-i^K^ -(^)C^ jw*>M 



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Yasna ii. 

...j>oxM»^|^ -i^fW^t^r' '^^MT^*-*^ 3 

■*"^ (o^fj/ ^i^^ 1S;^^ •^'C'-ir >ru 5 
H^)-^^ ^^w^ Q;**&^ fi^ -^ro* 

fO'^^-^f-^/ lOPH^f Hot-*' |^^>f 6 

rjK>,^p*'^^^/ »ui-*H7i •^v'-*' J^"^ 



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Yasna ii and 26. 5 

'>4nf H^QfHf^ lUW^-'^^J lO^^^ 

Yasna 26. 

Sacrifice and Praise to the Fravashis. 

•W5^-Hpj/^*to v>4w^) •*(rio^^/' •Hr^-"K>i3 '>M^^ 



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6 Yasna 26. 

i>**^ -(?)Cf-^^^'^-*'<ii -(^JTP'^f^^j^ -(r)ri-"*A*^-"ai 4 
•"ro -*'^^-l'^5^"»^^A -"k^ji^jA) -"K13-"^^ -"p-(r)ci(i^ 

-»-»'^/*'ro -<^l»^?-"»-"V& '>?^-"e^ "^^di^-h •iO(y?o-*^-"cy 
'>i^-"^^ .a#^j loor-Hp^^^^^aii^ •»oar-*AieFO)(^V'/ VJ03 

-*'Pi>"^=^ •^H^K'iiyj^ •-"K^'^ar-" -*'p-(^pi^-^^y^ -4;n 

">^^^y-"»A^ '>j»;5^1^-"^^ ^JJj^QIDyfp (^-"^ '^*»]^^l^ 



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Yasna 26. . 7 

.^X^^^^ ..^^^^^^^ .oip^^pjjl^ 

•p*TO •i03^-<^"/"ro '^DC))^) -(rjcf-^KJi^^^j -"(^^ 7 7 

*4K'PK>-^apA(J(j^ -irjci^ioijj^j.-uV'ai -(nci-^^enj^j^fj^-"! 

•^^^))AA -^jcP^^^^ -t)Cf-*'^^(^g^ •4k'i-^(mi>»'(P J03 

-(;)cp^^-^f ^xn^ow^ip v|03-^-"/"ro '>^^^-"»^^^ 
■"owwip 9 V roj^-M^-**/"!^ '>**^^-">h-A(J -4;)Cf^i^-"^-" 9 

-(^xrV^ ^o V •?o3-*-*'-(p'/*'ro '^'**-"^-"»-*A(J •^k'P^-"^-*' ^^ 

"^of^.iAi .|0-u|()(V^ .jaAMjj-u(y .^pa#(2;' P^9^ •K23"*"""^""/"'*0 



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Yasna 26 and 57. 



>!)C>A> ^m-^K^D^V vjOj^-M^-^Z-TO ^rriH**^^ >*» 



III. 
Yasna 57. 

Srosh Yasht. 
Praise of the Angel Sraosha. 

-t?vK»^jj\jj 4var)j-"(p -"h'-fry^-" 



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Yasiia 57. 9 

^•^•'^e}-" '^isip*^^33 f^t;^VJA«p 

-^-^ten^-^t^ •n33^-M^-"/-*'ro -"td^-^-wro -«>G>o^-*'))ar -^ 
-^•ro -4;^K>^^ loar^^-** •(^(P*))-*'^^ -<7f^(u-"c i^^-**A(J 

•o** »03*^-"/-*'fO -*'p-*'(ir)-"!A-"K' .^^x*A toai*^ v-^p 

J^()S^|^(^ Myj.kAJ^Q^Mlp .^yXAMJ^j^f^ •4x:'9^K>,^((vi) 



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lo Yasna 57. 



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Yasna 57. *ii 

v-imy-^ro itxtf'iu-**!?^ f0(ir^iap=*^i3 
.JK^^^ioro ^*"\tf>lf f^»o*»<^-' p^ 



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i2 Yasna $7. 

•tHr-<7"f^ H^f-Hr -»i<»*^QH| 

^J^ .-Mp-yMf*o .^)jj|A^ '^i^K>,^Kin) •-'^'Plh'TO* 

•H*»(lJg^c loor-^i^j-" ^Wgj^ 
V '^90jp( ^)^ '>ar^M^?K> -*'igkA-"k» 



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Yasna 57. §3 



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14 Yasna 57. 

.^/!buM\)(|^ .MU^HyjU .MJM%iy^^ .XM# 



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Yasna 57. ' 15 

^n\MfOM*l^ ,M(^f^3jyy»M .MMiJHyMQ^^^ .MQyyMMi^^yjM a8 38 

-^jn-Wyn-M-t? .-"(|f'J-WJJi>-W .a#JJJJ|M-MVM^ .^(||»^>»2^.M# .-^JJI 



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i6 Yasfia j/. 

^f(y'*<2U-**S -**A»-MK>1>-"/ •*0*0-»-"fW 

32 i^(i-MfD ^^^)>\^ --o)?^"**^^ •iO'ir-**Vj-*' ^^d-^w 32 



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Yasna 57. 17 

— >K>j-*'ai '>(J-'^<J '>jA(i '>jj^ai '>|jg^-w^i3 -*'^^(ii'-(/tom 



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VISPARAD. 

IV. 
Visparad 15 (§§ 1--3V 

Kxhortation to Righteousness and Worship. 



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YASHTS. 

V. 

.Yasht 5 (§§ i~9; 132). 
Ardul Stir Yasht. 
Praise of Ardvf Sura Anahita, the Celestial Stream 
and Goddess of Waters. 

■^)d-^f ^-^"^-"/^•'Qii) H*3/-"-(y '^Vor-*' e^-^H I 

-t)r)o-'ar-»*'i^ -(?)cVd 4t2>3A^ 4)cro 

^^ro p^)^(i' 4)Cf^V 4)C!-"(i;i5yi^ •**'ro ^ 



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20 Yasht 5. 

,j;oj-uVmj^»-" .•^'^(^ai -(^yaiijiJ^^ -(h^*^ 

.^^D^^P^^D^^iS .»K>-»-«qi -^•(^{/ •H*TO 

.j^ji«jpa^)Oaj'^(J| .i^-M .-OtMT -e^rO 



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Yasht 5. 21 

>ro -(?f/^ -(^ro 6 v-^gj-"(ii 4)ff•*^(i:»'^(i' -^ar 
•*»^ -«K-o)far-(/^ -^P'^>fK>,^-*'/ •*'Pio(ir^i>T'(; -"Pioor 



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22 Yasht 5- 

•ioK»ar-»*'f-" 10^3^ t2>3A-" -"Vk* 

..Mip^(2i' .jooji^^ •**'0(y^{^ '^^>ar-" •p*'3f**-^ '^orH^ip 
132 -^(ff-^ip .^>ogvM^ "^tD^ro -">o(o-" ^32 



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Yasht 5 and 14. 23 

VL 

Yasht 14 (§§ I- 1 7). 

Bahram Yasht. 

Six of the Incarnations of Veriethraghna, 
Genius of Victory. 

*?t>^k5>.m^/ .^p#>oa«^9«o -(^)n^)V"''^l^^ "»>oD-" '>3 

•'"^W-" ^fj^^d^^Kp -{^/^-(r ^^yor-" joS^A^ .|oa«^ 
'^i^{/-"i^ •g-"i>*'C;**' '^•*AjS-w(ji .xM«^(2f-" 2 



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24 Yasht 14. 

(^-^'f-^ij lo^^Aw "'V-^'oi) -fr>i^ 



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Yasht 14. 25 

^^^i^^ .jo^3i3-Mj*j**» ^i^KJJ^iJ ^-ui-(7ar^ 9 9 

't^\^y^ -iffiV]^^ A*^m 4-'ro 

Ajoi vioj^-Hf^l^ru •^fKva^>)(j^^ -t^«^^(JfV<; xo IV 10 

'^f-i^ff"^) t^i)-*!^ '>•«^'»^^^ .>-»"-(^{ir-M n n 



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26 Yasht 14. 

••p*'»-"-<r-^ '^jljjiy •*^»(i^'\ '>Wi3 



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Yasht 14. 27 

>f-(^{f"(; (^-^'D-^Cj*" '>)»Gnj(i' "»-*«-(fai'-*' 17 17 



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VENDIDAD. 

VIL 
Vendidad 3 (§§ 23-29). 

The Blessings of Agriculture. 

•jjMTU vH^g^fH^ '^Vor-^ gS^Vir .jaa*-iw v-^K'w^'^y 
-^/ -H^*'»^'»oii> -»fOJH3**AM»5 -^ifiieftHoAl^ ^k>-*-«mi -**5 
-«HrjrrA^) -^-(rrpAiojy-'^^ -"Hmn-^HTO -*Aigk))<J 

•^JO-'JO^ •-^WIH' -^lA^ -'*TO 



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V^endidad 3. 29 

..jQyj^ -^r/ -(nr-^^^ '^ro ^^ V ^fo^A^-^yy^ -^yy^ "^If a6 

'^(y^n)^f^U^*Qts^ e^>f -ifr^ >ro 



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30 Vendidad 3 and 6. 

VIII. 

Vendidad 6 (§§ 44-51). 

Disposal of the dead bodies. — Origin of the Towers 
of Silence. 

--t)(J){^{3 -^^ '^••••-''(p ^Vr ■nj(J>i\j3 -^Lp ^f«P13 DCh"/""))-" 

"'/torn -^^^ -(?«u)^ijg<i'-^))-*A(& -•^'O •■^{»(S)-"»'e^W 



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Vendidad 6. 31 

vpjtf<!^p»^ "^yOf^ .joSaA-(; g^-*** 48 V-*'0-»P •>>b5>« 48 

•^y lo-^ .MjjJ\^0{yu foar^my j^^/^ai) -(rjri^p'/ 
•^^)ar•« .a#^a«Y«j "*w^f^ 4)ri-"K>i5^^-' -(rjcV^ -^m 

-^IV" Y'^rO ""IIV'-'-^/^ »OK>(i)-« fJOh^K^ "'/loro 5^ 5» 



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52 Vendidad 19. 

IX. 

Vendidad ig (§§ 5-10). 

The Temptation of Zoroaster by the Evil Spirit. 

-^d^ro -i7«-'*'ro ^^i^^i^ -^i-em^^^f^ hy^^t;^^ 

^^-(7 ^K'fjy:^ Var)i-*'i^ iof-^))-"K>i3-*'aM' (yor j^^i 

.j-««l-M(p -^K-^(^ tO(ir-"3 vn^>^!''-*^-(; '>^j-" ">-^^c!b23 "^'^ 
•^-w'-i^di'-M .•>K»^'ai 9 V -^ )•*■>! ^•''^ "^"^5-" -"-(?)r3 -"p*^ "^oi*} 



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Vendidad 19. 33 

^yuj^i^ .M^Mip .jj|jj •-^(leio-'ar-"^ ^^oi^w .^^^ -^p^ 
••^><»,^{am p-'e^j^^ ]\6^A^ toi-A^-" lo^V t^^:!^ 

op 00 .^MyiM)yMi\'^^^ -(^yV-^'i^ 



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TRANSCRIPTION OF AVESTAN ALPHABET. 

(Compared with Justi, Hattdhuch der Zemisprache,)^ 

A. Vowels. 

Short ....... ^ a » i \ U \ 9 fQ e '^ O 

a i u Ce) (i) o 

Long ^ a vJ ^ u \§ ^e *> o H"^ jr4 

d i U (ij i o (do) (d) 

B. Consonants. 

Guttural % k }y 1l V g \J 

k (kh) g ^ ark) 

PalaUl Y c -— j» y 

^ / 

DenUl r» t 6 P ^ d (^d ^/ 

t (tk) d (dh) CO 

Labial Jf / A / _j * w 7e/ 

/> / d w 

Nasal i» iSV i» i^H ^ ^ 

W (ff) n (M) m 

Semivowel and 

Liquid ro {'*) y (iy ^ r (^ {n) v Cff)* 

y r V 

Sibilant M^ -oi X^P TOp ^Z sbi 

(6) (V (sh) (sk) z (%h) 

Aspiration . . . . or /^ ^ ^ ' 

/' (q) 
Ligature y^ hr 

__0f)_ 

* Forms in parentheses () show nhere Justi has been deviated from. 

* The signs i, ft need only be employed for purely scientitic pur- 
poses; the letters r, v for both initial and internal rt)**, ^», answer 
fully for practical purposes. 

' The diB'ercntiation /, /, /' need only be made in scientific articles. 
The single sii^n .? is ordinarily quite sufficient for the three n», (St 3K>«. 



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^J 



NOTE S 

ON THE 

TEXT. 



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ABBREVIATIONS. 



adj. = adjective 

advl. = adverbial 

cl. = class 

cpd. = compound 

dcln. = declension 

esp. = especially 

et al. = tt alia 

expl. = example 

fir. = from 

indecl. = indeclinable 

infin. = infinitive 

noni. pffopr. =: nomtn proprium 

num. = numeral 

orig. = original, originally 

opp., opp. to = opposed to 

par. = paragraph 

pret, = preterite 

ptcpl. = panicipie 

sb., subst. = substantive 

scdry. = secondary 

str. = strong 

vb., ybl. =r verb, verbal 

w. = with 

wk. = weak 



Afr. -- Afringan 

A.O.S. =: American Oriental Society 

B.B. 2= Bezzenberger's Beitrilge 

GAv.* = Gatha A vesta 

Gr.* = Grammar 

IF. = Indogermanische Forschungen 

Ind.lran. •= Indo-Iranian • 

K.Z. — Kuhn's Zeitschrift 

MS. = Manuscript 

MSS. = Manuscripts 

Nar. *= Naryosangh 

Ny. =: Nyaish 

P. = Persian 

Phi. Vers. = Pahlavi Version 

S.B.E. = Sacred Books of Ea«t 

Sir. = Sirosah 

Skt. = Sanskrit 

Vd. = Vendidad 

Vsp. = Visparad 

VAv.* ~ Younger Avesta 

Ys. = Yasna 

Yt. = Yasht 

Z.A. = Zend-Avesta 

ZPhl. Gl. = Zand-Pahla\i Glossary 



' For explanation of GAv., YAv. see Gt\ p. xlvii. 
* All references to 6>. §§ ( ) are to Jackson, Avesia Grammar 
(Stuttgart 1892). 



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Yasna xx Notes. 

General Remarke. On the book of the Yasna and its divisions, 
tec <rr. Introd. p. xvii §13. The present selection from it is one of 
three chapters, Ys. g, xo, 11, which were specially recited in preparing the 
Haoma as part of the sacrifice. The verses of this short chapter, mingled 
with the prose lines of the liturgy, formed the conclusion of the Haoma 
ritual. The sacred wine was then drunk by the priest, and the perfor- 
mance of the Yasna sacrifice continued. 

The introductory verses here given narrate how three good creatures, 
if misused, will utter imprecations ; the closing . stanzas are in praise of 
liaoma. The Metre may be compared with the Sanskrit fUka but is 
sometimes defective; occasionally it reminds one of the Kalwala verse of 
Longfellow's Hiawatha. See Gn Part II, chi^. on Metre. 

Ys. xi.i. 

gaul as pas c a kaomasea: the inference is plausible that the three 
creatures are respectively typical of the three classes, peasant, war- 
rior, priest. 

kasidm ba^iahe: the Phi. Vers, renders 'who dost not give me as a 
precious thing (to worthy people)'. — See Vocabulary. 

Ys. X1.2. • 

as pi haidr9m: apparently the second, or warrior class is here alluded 

to — see above. 
mqm sSvar*: on the construction, cf. Gr, § 930. 
po^rumaUi .... ka rfay^: either in the race or in battle. 

Ys. X1.3. 
kSiar9m: presumably an allusion to the priest who does not fulfil 

his duty. 
a*»iHuf9m ti drays At: the Phi. Vers, renders * who witholdesl me 
from being prepared'. 

Ys. II.4- 
pi la: Abura Macda is of course to he understood (sec next paragraph). 

Ys. X1.6. 
var'ljiQ: Serpents, snakes', as shown by the fragment given by Geldner, 
in K,Z. xxviL p. 588. 



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jg Notes to Yasna it and 86. 

Yb, 1 1.7. 
fra»rasy6n9m ,,, pairiikait9ni: accordbg to the legend, ihe mur- 
derer Franrasyan (i. e. later AfrSisyab), took refuge in an undergroaad 
palace or iron chamber; in spite of which, however, Horn captared 
him. See Dannesteter» Etudgs frantmnes, vol. ii. pp. 225-229; S,B*£., 
vol. xxiii. pp. 64 note, 144; £/ Zend'/h^tsia, vol. i. p. lit note. 



Yasna a6 Notes. 

General Renuudc. In the performance of the Yasna sacrifice this 
short chapter U recited by the priest (Zot) and his assistant (HMspi) as 
part of the invocation of the Fravashis. 

Ys. 26.1. 
itaomi zbayemi ufy tmi: compare the formulaic ydstUUca vahmMicd etc. 
Ys. 57.6 et al. 

Ys. 26.4. 

ak'^fn * , , /ravaitm: the usual flve-foid classiftcation of the spiritual 
faculties of man. The same division is fotind also in later Parstsm — 
(i) ahu (Phi. ahii) 'spirit, breath of life'; (2) dagnd (Phi. din) 'religion, 
conscience'; (3}. baodah (Phi. bod) 'consciousness, perception'; (4) urvan 
(Phi. rtibart) *sOul*; (5) fravaii (Phi. frofutr) Travashi, guardian angel*. 

g9uS hudmnhb: an allusion to the Primeval Bull slain by Ahriman, but 
from which all animals are sprung. Similarly, mankind are descended 
from his counterpart Gayo^maretatty the primitive man, a sort of Ira- 
nian Adam, who was also slain by Ahriman. See Ys. 26.5 below. 

Y«. 26.9. 
uzdtLhyunqmca: Zoroastrianism distinctly recognized the righteous in 
other lands besides Iran, cf. Yt. 13.143,144 — a glimpse of the idea 
of the universal brotherhood of mankind. 

Ys. 26.10. 
haca ... 4 saoiyaiiidi'' an allusion to the coming of the Saviour (Sao- 
shyantj. The phrase haca — & etc. is here about equivalent to 'from 
the beginning of the world to the resurrection', cf. i Corinthians xv.45. 

Ys. 26.11. 
^rvqnb ... y43 /rava^ayb- here the souls of the dead are Fravsshis, 
cf. Yt 13.17. The relative yO^ (f.) is attracted to /ravaiay^. 



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Notes to Yasna 57. jq 

Yasna 57 Notes. 

General Remark. Two Yashts (Vs. 57, Vt. xz) are dedicated to 
Sraosha the divinity of Religious Obedience and Devotion. The latter 
Yasht (Yt. zz) is commonly termed Srosh Yasht ffSdhdkht and Is rather 
the more liturgical of the two. The former, our present selection (Ys. 57), 
is the Srdsh Yatht si shaba or 'Srosh Yasht of the Three Nights', since it 
is used at funeral ceremonies during the three nights after the decease, 
as weU as being in common use at the sacrifice. See Darmesteter, Le Zend- 
Avesta, vol. L p. 358. The MSS. generally divide this Yasna into thirteen 
Kardes *sectioxis', each of which closes with the repetition of a formula. 

Yb. 57.1. 

ajfftn twhu: the opening verse beginning with these words, consists 
merely of formulas; it is therefore here omitted. 

Ys. 57.2. 

frasl9r»tdf, paid bar»sm3n: on the construction, cf. 6^r. § 966 N. I. 

pMya P'wdr'itSra: a Dvandva compound {Gr, § 879 expl.), and it re- 
fers apparently, to Mithra and Rashnu, the keeper and the judge at 
the Cinvat IMdge after death. It seems at least reasonable to regard 
Mithra (cf. Yt. zo) as the watchful guardian (pdyu); it is fair to pre- 
sume that Rashnu the Just (cf. Yt. X2), the divinity who weighs in the 
balance tlie deeds of men, may be the p^r»Uar who has the decision. 
The Phi. Vers., moreover, supports the view as it actually glosses the 
phrase as pAnak barJnkar Mitro *the keeper and former Mithra'; it 
fails to recognize the dual of the Dvandva, treats the words as sin- 
gular, and hence makes no mention of Rashnu. 

Y». 57.3 
riLya ..•yasna: on the construction, cf. Gr, § 941 expl. 

Ys. 57.6. 
Pryafltfl etc.: nouns in explanatory appoMition to bar»sma. 

Ys. 57.8. 
gap m frasr Svaya$ afs manivqn: 'who chanted the Gftthlls, the me- 
trical selections', etc. 

Ys. 57.10. 
yap a mjA na*dy3»k9m: a reminiscence of the Gathas (Ys. 34.8 b)« 
hence «*«</• (d) rather than n&id^ (d), 

Ys. 57. n. 
b$r»zaidim: the Phi. Vers, has bUland 'tall' which would' rather favor the 
MSS. reading b9r**aiam, this would imply a stem bfrHa^tya-, 



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^O Xotc» to Yagna 57. 

Ys. 57.14. 
dumi ... vOrjuA yehiti: compare the words of the Psalmist (P5. xci.io) 
*there shall no evil befall thee, neither shall any plague come 
nigh thy dwelling'. 

Ys. 57.15- 
vJspayA fravoiS gaipayib: i. e. *the prosperity of all mankind*. The 
Phi. Vers, has faru\iiih 'prosperity, . comfort, growth'. 

Ys. 57.18. 
frdn&m&ite pwaiidi: on the syntax, see Gr, § 96a expL 

Ys. 57.20. 
papo.vacA pairu^a.vacOi: the Phi. Vers, glosses *he speakers protec- 
tion' etc. ... lUj zak pan&kih yemnldHnid ... For the iorm pa^ri.gOf* 
(Geldner's text) instead of *>gti'* (as here), sec (jr. §§ 354, 193 N. 2. 

Ys. 57.24. 
Jaino^diso daSnaydi: for the apparent redundancy compare the phrase^ 
Av. viso vispaUim Yt. xo.18, etc., Skt. vispdiim visSm R.V. 3.13.5. 
On daenaySi see Gr, § 957. 
fraor^nta ., fr& ,»/rS: for the repelition qI frd, cf. Gr. § 75a 
N. 2 expl. 

Ys. 57.25. 
aheca awh^us: on the syntax, cf. Gr. § 977. 
drvajbyo kainJbyo: on the collocation (m. n. — f.) see Gr.. § 906. 

Ys, 57.27. 
as ay a: the Phi. Vers, has sHyako = P. sSyah, as Dk E. W. West kindly 
wrote me (Dec 5 1888); hence the suggestion *not casting a shadow', 
with which Geldner coihpares the Skt. epithet ch&yddviiiya 'accpm^ 
panicd by a shadow', the characteristic mark distinguishing man from 
the divinities MBh. 3.57.25. 

Y's. 57.28. 
dsyavhn aspadHya: on the dual number here, cf. Gr. § 908 N. 2 expl. 

Ys. 57.29. 
ave vyeh^ti ... ave d/^^tc: i. e. 'they pursue and overtake others, but 
they themselves never can be overtaken'; ave refers both times to the 
horses of Sraosha. 

Ys. 57.30. 
u^a/ita^re hindvd: the river of the Orient is the Indus, as the Phi. 
Vers, has it; the river in the west is perhaps the Tigjrts* 



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Notes to Yasna 57, Visparad 1$ and Yasht 5. 41 

Yb. 57-31. 
karivar* J^anirap»tn: the middle one of the seven Karshvars and 
the one on which we live. The names of the seven are given at 
Vd. 19.39. 

Ys. 57.33. 
visp»: on the fonn cf. Gr, §§ 23a, 906. 



Visparad 15 (1-3) Notes. 

General Remark. On the Visparad and its character, compare Gr, 
Introd. p. xviii § 14. ,The Karde here given serves as an introduction to 
the Yasna IlaptanhSiti (cf. par. 2), in connection with which it was re- 
cited at the ritual; hence the significance of the allusions frav&kaica etc. 

Ysp. X5-I. 

vir'zyaiqm: so reading with MS. authority. The verb here is pas.sive 
(cf. Gr, § 4S5 expl.), the subject in vofiu vdsirya, 

tiyamna" anuyamnHii: *in order to pay oflf the deficits (i. e. in the 
Life Book) with a surplus'. See 6>. Introd. p. xxviii § 44. On Y^^' 
•give' = 'pay', see Skt. PWb. r^dtn dH-, dap^^m da-, cf. Lat. poenas 
dan. Here anuyamnHil is a regular instrumental of means, price. 

Ysp. 15.2. 
idd asta ,,. yS neb ilto: the GAv. endings give an archaic tone. On 

mA im, cf. Gr, § loio Note. 
Jrav&kaica ... unapyHite: on the locatives see Gr, § 992. 



Yasht 5 (1-9; 132) Notes. 

General Remarks. The Ab&n Yasht 'Yasht of Waters' from' which 
the selection is taken, is one of the longest of the Yashts, cf. Gr. Introd. 
p. xviii § 15. It celebrates the praises of Ardvi Sura Anfthita, the Celestial 
Stream and Goddess of Waters, describes her descent from the heaveijs, 
and her worship, and closes with at description of her appearance. 

The worship of Ardvi Sura AnSlhita was widely spread in the East. 
She appears as Anfthata in the cuneiform inscription of the Persian king 
Artaxerxes (4th century B.C.); her name (Avdtxt^) is found in Strabo, 
Plutarch, etc., and she became familiar in Greece as Yenus Anahita (*Aqppo- 
dtxijc, Avat-ctc). 

Only the opening sections and closing verse of the Yasht are 
here given. 



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42 Note* to Vadit 5. 

j^efke: for the ma^^c. (instead of fern.) form, s«e Gr. § 903 N. i, and 

cf. ake Yt. 5.9 below. 

Yt. 5.5 
vhjms*dUi: the subjunctive mode here, as also at Vs. 57.31 avasS'te, 

Ys. 57-2$ gfr'wnqn, seems to denote the repetition or continuity of 

the act; the idea seems to be developed from the future force of 

the subjunctive. 
vlspMii a 01 karivqn: cf. Gr, §§ 228, 402. 

Yt. 56. 
ki%var*na: the reading of this word, as well as its meaning, is not clear. 
By some, kttsuar^na has been read and explained as *with mighty 
power'. Perhaps the word is , to be connected with A/sif- Hongue* 
(q. v.) and y^ir- ^rnove*, aod to be referred to Ormazd's act of creat- 
ing by a mere word, a movement of the tongue. 

Yt 5-7. 
aspd,tt9oyehiJ: better here to omit the punctuation (v) and insert it 

after bdzM^taoyehi : all that intervenes is parenthetic. 
srtra ... airva^ii: these two epithets, like the participle 0iai$um$M, 

refer to Ardvi Sura the subject of sispata, 

Yt. 5.9.. 

ake ray a:, see note*on par. 4 yifke, 

kaomayA: thus goo<l MS. authority; the form is perhaps to be explained 
as borrowed from such a passage as Yt 14.5 (see below), Ny. 4.9 etc. 
In Yt. 14.5, Ny. 4*9, kaomayi is properly nom. plur.; it agrees with 
the subject of yazama^tU and alludes to the worshippers or officiating 
priests. From such formulaic passages with yatamaide (pi.), the form 
kaemayd (pL) seems to have been transferred to those like Ny. z.i6 
yazdi (sg.) and the present Yt. 5.9, where the plural form haomayo is 
not appropriate. If, however, kaoma yo ^aiva be read with certain 
MSS., it probably must be explained as kaoma yd (asH) gava, which 
is open to objection. 

ye^kjf kMtum: this formula is commonly foun«i at the end of the Yasna 
chapters, cf. Ys. 4.26, Ys. 5.6. It is a later imitation of GAv. Ys. 51.22. 
See Gr* Introd. p. xviii § 13 end. 

Yt. 5132. 
a^rvanta zazvAvka: a concludintr prayer that the warriors may come 
back as successful as did those of King Vishtaspa. 



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Notes to Yasht 14. 43 

Yasht 14(1-17) Notes. 

0«A«rml Remark. Verethraghna, or Bahri&m, the Genius of Victory, 
to whom this Yasht u dedicated, corresponds in certain respects to Indra 
Vftrahan of the Hindu mythology. (le may in fact be regarded as the 
Iranian reflex of the latter. 

The Yasht, of which only the opening is here given, contains some 
64 paragraphs. The ten incamattoBs in which Vereihraghna appeared be* 
fore Zoroaster are described; the powers which the divinity bestows upon 
his worshippers are enumerated; his glorification is enjoined. 

Yt 14.1. 
ahura ... aiduni: the regular formulaic manner of addressing Ormaad; 
for a briefer form of the same see Yd. 3.23 below. 

Yt. 14.x 
p^0^¥y9 ^jasa^: on the adjective here cf. 6V. § 997. The saccessiVe 
appearances of Verethraghna are probably to be understood as seen 
by Zoroaster in a vision. Similar visions elsewhere may be cited. 

Yt. 14.3. 
dal akmdi: in construction sc mraci- Observe that aAm^t is Zoroaster, 

and amavasUmif Verethraghna. •' * 

V9r»pra vfr'Pravastfmd: on the instrumental, see Gr, % 941 end. 

Yt. 14.5. 
akt raya ... yasna: cf. 6'r. § (>4i eipl. 
ySilf d4taii: ^according to (what are) the first lawn'. 
kaamayi: see Yt. 5.9 note. 

Yt. 14.7. 
yim upairi srnyt: for the two accusatives, sec Gr, § 930 N. 2. 

Yt 14.11. 

uitrake: the whole picture of the camel (parr. 11-13) is graphicaUy and 
accurately drawn. 

majyd,vawkahe: the use of camel's hair for raiment has been familiar 
in all times; we need only recall St. Matt, tii.4; hence the appropriate- 
ness of the preceding giO^m 'shaggy'. 

Yt. X4.12. 
yd Hiapriiva: here yd = ya^ ho Vhen he'. 

Yt. 14.13. 
yqm hi d1traisi$k9m: * which (i. e. iiaprim) his far-glance descries way 
ahead of him'. The metre of the line is defective; but there is no 
need of supplying daima. 



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^ Notes to Yaslit 14 ui4 Vendidad 3. 

Yt. 14.15- 
ka: this word it> metrically dissyllabic aiid standi as a gen. sg. form. 
With the combination Aa vardzaAe lit. 'swine-boar' (of. Eflg. stud- 
horse) compare par. 1 1 uHirahe vadatyiaolf. In each caie the first term 
(ha» uifra) is generic; the second (varMta, vadaryu) is specific. 

Yt 14.17. 
narl paij^ca,dasatfhd: this denotes the ideal age in the Avesta, the. 
btoQm of youth, a sort of Iranian *sweet' sixteen', cf. Vs. 9.5; Vd. 14.15. 



Vendidad 3 (23-29) Notes. 

Oetieral Remarks. The 3rd Fargard of the Vendidad comprises 
42 sections; it describes various places and persons that delight or grieve 
the earth (conceived of as a divinity); it pictures the blessings of agri- 
culture and of grain-raising; and closes with various prescriptions relating 
to the Holy JLaw and its observance. The present selection is in praise 
of agriculture. 

Vd. 3.23. 
ddtar* gaifattqm , . aidum: see note on Yt. 14.1. 
tu^rim: for the accusative see Gr* § 934. 

vtf/ bd pahi: tliese words are to be construed together, cf. Vd. 3.2. 
and/*»m .... kifnao^-ii: the changing of desert land into cultivated 
tracts by irrigation, or conversely rendering it arable by draining, 
played an important role among the ancient Iranians. The frequent 
allusions to the irrigation canals both of Asia Minor and of the sur- 
rounding country in Xenophon's Anabasis, are not without interest in 
this connection. 

Vd. 3.34. 
dar»ja .. sail a: see Crr, § 997 expl. 
karfivala: tliis word is extra metrum, and apparently is an cxpla^ 

natory gloss. 
a'Sil ta^: 'desiring this (tai) from a good laboring man'. — taf depends 
upon a^lfiJ (cf. Gr, § 931) and refers to the idea implied in kar$ya, 
vaithSuI a*wi.^ol/>ne: compare the following vavhJu} ar$dtM; the earth 
desires a husbandman, the maid desires a husband. On the colloca- 
lion gen. dat. (= abl.) cf. Gr, §§ 957, 958, 963, 980. 

Vd. 3.25. 
kdv^ya bd:ivd dai'tnaca: Vith the left arm and the right'. On the 
use of bdzvo as instr. (cf. \rvudrvd Ys. X0.8), see Gr. §§ 265, 983 N., 
992 N. 



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Notes to Vendidad 3 and 6. At 

gaon9m bara^ii .. pufrfm ava»bttra^ti : the subject in the one 
ca&c is the husbandman, in the other case the husband — he gives 
her (hi) a good color, or blooming appearance. 

Vd. 3-27. 

aini h9r*pe: *I. shall go laden' ^ 'become pregnant', opp. to apufra 
ai*ti in par. 24 above., 

vlspai )»ar»fili$ ... yavahe: observe the distinction between hter^fiH 
and yteva i. e. *all sorts of fruits shall they reap, beside the harvest 
of grain'. 

Vd. 3- 29. 

hiitahe: the pres. here, like bairye*ftte below, Is used with a future signi- 
fication. The line metrically lacks a syllable. 

p9r*smanai$uca: observe ca, 

bad a pwqmi the form €bpk5nd is gen. abl. and upon hyaifqm indirectly 
depends. 

[a a by a ba*rye*nte]: this seems to be an interpolation from Ys. 3^.15 
toi abya bairymnti 'they shall be carried by these two'. 

dim: see Or, § 1023 N. 



Vendidad 6 (44-51) Notes. 

General Remarks. In the development of the Zoroastrian religion 
the worship of the elements played an important part. The purity of the 
ear^h, fire, and water, must not be defiled, especially not by contact with 
a corpse. Hence arose that peculiar mode of disposing of the dead, which 
has ever been a characteristic mark of the Parsi religion. 

The body (tanu), according to the present prescription, is to be 
carried to some high place, fastened (nidar'zayptt), and left to the dogs 
and birds to devour. The bones (azdbiS) were afterwards taken to a 
vault or receiver (uzdana) and preserved in some sort of a receptacle that 
recalls the antiquarian remains of the astdiUin or 'bone-receptacles' that 
have been found in Persia. 

The present selection does not du-ectly mention the Dakhma (da^ma)^ 
but the word appears elsewhere in the Vendidad. The two-fold treatment 
of the body (tana) and the bones (azdfni) may practically be paralleled 
in the modern Dakhmas, or Towers of Silence. 

For descriptions of the Towers of Silence in Bombay, see Dosabhai 
Framji Karaka's History of the Parsis, vol. i. p. 199 seq.; Ragozin's Media, 
P* 125; Peshotan* and Geiger's Eastern Iranians, vol. i. p. 90 seq. 



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jfS Notes to Vendidad 6. 

Yd. 6.44. 
ianlim: i. e. the entire body before denuded of flesh, in contrast with 
the skeleton {asiddii par. 49}. 

Vd. 6.45. 

har^iiStaiivara pa^tl gatu^xra[€a]: 'even upon the highest places' 
i.e. 'upon the mountains', as the Phi. Vers, itself explain;^ ITie first 
-ca stands at the opening of the sentence (of. Vspi. 15.2 yasnaheca)^ 
as sometimes also in Skt. ; the best MSS. omii the second ^ca and 
read simply gatnfva, 

dim: here refers to tanantf cf. Gr. § 1023a. 

avotaftqm s^n^: on the form jfamd, see Gr, § 936 expl. 

Vd. 6.46. 
ayaifhninfm etc.: these accusatives, like some others, are commonly 
explained as 'accusatives of materiar; they ultimately fail under Gr, 

§§ 933> 93S. 
bar9nt9m frnjasq-n: 'they will go bearing' = *will go and carry'. On 
the construction see Gr, § 93S. 

Vd. 647. 
frajatai: on the change to singular from plural, see Gr. § 9i5(4)expL 
ka hi asti cipa: compare Gr, § 1020 N., cxpL 

Vd. 6.48. 

ait a he pa^ti: *on this acconnt', i.e. the person has ipso facto be- 
come po^eiaHU, 

duyc sa'te upazanqm. the subject of upQuoll is evidently *self'. The 
use of self-castigation to drive out the demon that h«s temporarily 
taken possession of the body is familiar in religious austerities. The 
upHzana, however, have been interpreted as referring to the killing 
of so and so many noxious animals (cf. Hdt. X..14O, Vd. z6.I2). .The 
term later cante to have a monetary sense; sins could be compensated 
for by a payment of money to the priests. 

azdbt}: the skeleton, opposed to l0num (cf. par. 44), see (ieneral Re- 
marks above. 

^itdHnffn: apparently a structure, vault or edifice of some sort in which 
the bones were placed and preserved in receptacles (cf. asdmnifva, etc.). 
The Phi. Vers, rightly recognizes this by its allusion to the astddsn 
'Sone-receptacles*. See Casartelli, Astodam and Av. Funtral JfHes, 
B, and O, Record \%ijO p. 7. 



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Notes lo Vendtdad 6 and 19. jiv. 

YlL 6.50. 

k$.r*ua0i: on the imperative force of the 'injunctive', cf. Gr, § 445 N. a. 

up air I span 9m: it is here to be observed that the bones (atdHfl) are 
carefully placed 'out of reach of the voracious animals. Observe the 
contrast with ktr^flJifard (par. 46) in the case of tanu. 

aHa*w$,var*.nti m: to be construed with usuidH?m, 

aps yaf vairyay^: compare Gr. § 980 expl. 

upairi,naima$: the better reading is vpara.naimA$, see now GelAner's 
edition. 

^ Vd. 6.51. 

y€%i tavqn mazdayasna: as an apodosis to the condition supply m* 
daipyqn from nida'pita below. The idea is that 'according to cir- 
cumstances' (yezi tavqn . . yeu ftdil) the bones may be placed either 
(yezi) in a stone receptacle, or (ytui) in mortar, or may be simply 
laid upon the dead man's mat (ha,std*riS) upon the ground under 
the beating sun. 

QiAnaifva: the Phi. Vers, has tagind 'made of stone' Le. in stone umt, 
cf. CasarteHi loc. cit. 

Jktt.tia*r$I: on the ace. of goal after mdafp$ta, see Gr, § 9S7. 

rapca^,aiwi.itar'na: this loose compound adjective refers to Ae (s: azdHfJ 
as & general neut. pi. case. 

nsda*pita: on the singular, cf. Gr, § 915 (4) expl. 



Vendidad zg (5-10) Notes. 

Oaneral Remttrk. The present little extract from the 19th Vendidad 
presents something of a parallel to the struggle of Buddha with Mftra, or 
to the temptation of our Saviour by Satan. 

Angra Mainyu through the agency of one of his fiends had tried to 
slay Zoroaster, but the latter combats him. Whereupon the Spiritual Enemy 
himself tempts the master to renounce the good religion and follow him; 
he is repulsed, however, by 2Soroaster. 

. The material of the whole chapter is doubtless old, but signs of 
grammatical decay are so evident that its composition at loast must 
be later. Sec Gr, § 903. 

Vd. 19.5- 
nas$'I daivd,dSi9m: on the case and on the adjective agreement, ace 

Gr. §9 926, 903 N. 2. 912. 
jattani po*rikqm .. fnqPa'U: the passage is not clear; but the sense 

of the Phi. Vers. 'I destroy the love of sorceresses [the worship of idols]* 



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^8 ^otc!^ ^o Vendidad 19. 

may perhaps best be followed. The dat. yakm&i is probably used in 
a final sense with the subjunctive^ though in Vd. 1.18 var^n^m yim 
capru^ao$9m yahmSi . tayaia firaiiaoni it is apparently local. 

Vd. 19.6. 

po^rufaspahe pufrd: Pourushaspa, the father of Zoroaster, is often 
mentioned in the Avesta. The name of Zoroaster's mother, according 
to the tradition (Bund. 3a. 10, et sL), was Dugheda, though it happens 
not to occur in the extant texts of the Avesta itself; but it is found 
in an A v. fragment from the Nddkdkhi Nask, see West in S.B.E. 
vol. xxxvii. p. 483. 

vadajand: see note by West, PhL Texts Translattd, S.B.E, vols. xviiL 
p. 217; xxiv. p. 103; xxxvii. p. 212 N. 5. 

Yd. 19.7. 
hi .. vawuhim dainqm: here hi (dat. gen. sg. = ace. sg.) anticipates 

dainqm, cf. Gr. § 10 19 N. 
n9ii ... vF.»rvisySf: 'not though etc' The subjunctive viJhrvSfyai 

here denotes cqncesaon. On the singular number of the verb, cf. 

^^* § 915 (4)1 aiid for uU&n»m (ace. nom.), cf. Gr* § 937. 

Vd. 19.8. 

ktina taya kukfr^t^sfho: the grammar bere, as in par. 9, is corrupt; 
it is not worth while to tr>' to defend it by any forced explanation. 
The epithet hukiftAwkd (pi.), and probably also asti vahiUhm (par. 9), 
may well be regarded as gloss. 

man a dqma anrd: the ace. dqma depends upon vemSi, For the col- 
location mana .. avrd see preceding note, and cf. Gr. §§911, 903. 

Vd. 19.9- 
mana zaya asti vahiitim: see note on par. 8 above. 
dapa^ \, fradaptn: i. e. Ormazd made the weapons; his ministers, 

the- Amsbaspands, delivered them to Zoroaster. 
grtltte akarane: on the agreement see Gr* § 992 N. 2. 



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VOCABULARY. 



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ORDER GF LETTERS 

FOR 

VOCABULARY. 

1 a s m 9 € ^ 



•4 c Ji 

5 t A d d i n ii 

6 p / 6 w m 



7 y 



% s I i S 



In the alphabetic arrangement no distinction is made between /, /, 
nor between Av, k. 



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VOCABULARY. 

(For Explanations and Abbreviations see p. 36^ 

Av. *» a. 

Id-, tffi- (before vowels): ncg. prefix •on-'. — Cf. afraaa^il/ti', anUpa*. 
[Skt. a-, an-: Old P. «-; PhL «-, «»-] 

2 a (vbl. prefix and postpos.), see under B, 

a^fhimanQ', see under |/'a a^-. 

a^fhe, a^ttha etc., see under tf/w* ^z*. § 422. 

a^Pyejah^ (from i a -f >^/^'a4-) : adj. ' iilcorraptible '. — afbyejamhS nom. 
pi. m. Ys. 26.3 (epithet of Amesba Spentas). 

[Phi. Vers, has asiyhomartd; Nar. has amftyumani'i 

a^nika': sb. m. *fisce'. — ^Yt X4.9. — Cf. i\MO parfvofUka', 
[Skt. dntka-; Phi. inik (Hom)l 

ainidai (from i <i 4* fiStr/): adr. * elsewhere '. — Ys. 57.33 *both here and 
elsewhere'. 

n^pi: (i) adv. 'also, too'; (2) vbl. prefix; (3) prep. w. ace. *Ufiio, upon'.— 
y»- 57*33 ; Yt. 14. 1 3.— See also under t^j/J-.— {Skt. tf/>/;OIdP. «//>] 

a^k>i, see under aiwi {Gr. g 83,4). 

a'ltii (^perhaps from a^bi-^-Y*^'* cf. Skt gaihift paJu-if): vbl. adj. 'de- 
siring '. — Vd. 3.24, see note od loc. Otherwise 0^6$! must here 
be taken prepositionally, i. e. a^M /tf/ . . . a'bil faf Mb this 
case ... in that case*. Uncertahi. 

aiwi, a^ii: (i) adv. and vbl. prefix 'to unto, over'; (2) prep. same. 
, [Skt abhi; Old P. My; Phi. a/-/ New P. «/-, «w-J 

a*wutac$na' (from «%i + y^r-) : ad j. ' running npon, Attacking '. — 
Yt 14.11. 

afvuidMna' (firom ii'wi -f- y<*l-) : sb. m. * bridle* halter'. — Cf. MaranyS.- 
aiwidSna-, "^[Cf, Skt. abfudhdm- 'halter'} 

aiwuvar^no' (from a'wi + tr*): sb. n. 'covering'. — Yd. 6.51, in the loose 
compound raocA.ahouvar»na ace. pi. n. (hi = atdHi) * clothed 
only with the sunlight ' (lit * having light as covering '). 



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5 2 a^wiiosiar* — aoj- 

a*wijlastar' (from ahtji-^^fkad', cf. C/-. § 754,1): sb. m. < a rider, 
one who bestrides*. — a'wiiasta nom. &g. Ys. zx.2. 

aiwiiSiian- (from <i'W \' foitan- from VVO* ^^* '^^ 'pc^SAnt, dweller*. 
— aiwi,$6ipne dat. sg. Vd. 3-24. 

a^wilhuta- (from n*wi •\- huta' from y^tf-* cf. Cr. g 752, 2): pass, ptcpl. 
as adj. * extracted, prepared '. — Yh. xz.3 note. 

a^wySiltar- (from o*wi -^ a\Jtar^, Cr, § 52 c, from |^tf|/- q. v.); sb. m. 

* overseer, guardian '. - - Vs. 57.15. 

ahtiydliitra- (from a^wh-^- aiiira-, Cr. § 52 c, from |^fl^/- q. v.): sb. n. 

* overseeing, guardianship'. — Yt. 5. f^. 

a^wydma- (from a^ivi •\- ama-^ Gr. § 52c): adj. * exceeding strong*. — 
Ys. 26.3. 

a^rujfa-: adj. • white •. — Ys. 57.27; Yt 5-7; Yt. 14.9. 
[Cf. Skt» «rir/a- 'reddUh*; PhU arOs] 

a^rvapa- (from i (» -h**''2'a/<*-): sb. m. * enemy*. — Ys. 57.26. 

a^rvant- (from lAar-): adj. * swift, valiant, gallant '.-^sb. m. 'gallant 
warriors, gallant chargers' (sleedi). — Ys* \\.z\ Ys. 57«*7.*' 
Yt. 5.132; Yt. 5.7. ■^^[Skt. apvant-: Phi. arvand^ New V,.arvand\ 

ait a-: demoa!»tr. pron. {Gr, § 417 ddu.) *this*. — Yt. 5.132; Yt 14.13:. 
Vd. 6.46 seq. — [Skt. ild- Old P. uUa-; Phi. i, iitir\ 

ait a da (from <74f/<i/ 4: P^s^pos ay. adv. 'then, thereupon*. — Vd. 6.46,47. 

aepra-: sb. n. perhaps * fire- wood* (y'7</-.= Skt. '\fM- *burn', cf. A v. 
a^sma-. If sO; compare with Av. ai^rapaHit ham'tdpaUi' Yt. 13. 105, 
Skt. samU'f^dni* * pupil with fire>wood in his hand*. Otherwise, 
possibly 'instruction' (?) £+Yi', cf. Skt. */tfH-y*#-. 

ai^rapa^ti" (from aepra- -\' paUi-y, sb. n, •- teacher*. — Vs. 26.7,8. 
{Phi. air pal; Stw P. kiriu»d\ 

aeprya (from aipra-y, sb. m. ' disciple*.—* Y^. s6. 7. S. 
., . [Pbl.V. has havUl; Nar. sifya-] 

as nit see under yi-. 

o^^M (stems 41-^ *-, ima-y ana-): demonstr. pron. 'this*, Gr* § 422 dcln. — 
W, 1 1.5 eic — [bkti aydm] 

a^va-.- num. adj. {Gr, § 369) *one*.— yt.5.5. — fOW P. aiva-; Phi. ^ ivai] 

aifma- (from ^ 2.//-); sb. m. 'wrath, Fury* (personified). — ^Aeshma Daevs, 
the Demon of Wrath, opponent of ^raosha; the Asmgdeus of 
the Apocrypha (Tobit iii.8,17). — Ys. 57.10^25,32. 
[Phi. i^jlm, aHm; New P. ^im] 

aoi, see under avi* 

aai/a, see under |/'fltf/. 

Y^^J^' vb. cl. 2 * speak, say '. -— at^^/tf pret. indie, raid. 3 ig. (Cr. §90) 
Vs. 1X.8; Vd. 3'2b,2S (gnomic). 



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aajawkvant" (from ad/aA'-*): adj. ' strong '.-^ Vs. 57. 1 1. -—fSkt. ^^sftran/-} 
«i ojuk^: sb n. 'strength '. — adj. * strong *.—a<y:^ ace. sg. n, (subst.) Yt. 14.12 ; 

aojm iiom. sg. m. (adj. Or. § 341) Vis. 57.10. 
[Skt 4^iM-; PhL 4/1 
aojiiia- (superl. to aopA-, or if;r«-, Gt. § 365): adj, * strongest'. 

[Skt. S}hiha'\ 
akoranu* (from 1 tf 4-i^): adj. 'boundless*. — Yd. ig.9 (^ee ander-itn'a>i*)< 
akarlta* (from la + karjta^ q. v.): adj. •unplowcd'.— Yd. 3.24. 
f/Vl/-; -vb. *see*# — -^aiwi *oversee> regard' (form ciiusat.). — CLa^wya* 

iJltar- [Cf. Skt Uf-; akfi- *eye') 

ajU": adj. <evll, ]iarntifur.--5b. n. <evii, calamity'.— Ys< 57.14 (npm.pl. 

snbst).— [Skt. aghd*; cf. New P. <?>&| 
"yfaph', see under ya^A-. 
atfitf', aitU' (from ^/r n^-): nb. m. (i) ^ being, life, spfrit'; (2) 'world* 

(i. e. oil that \s), — a/iUm aco. sg. 'spirit' Ys. 26.4 (see note); 

vispnn ahum 'all life* i. e. the world Ys. 57.16; flrji^*^^ dat. sg. 

Vt. 5.1; avhftti glen. »g. ((7r. § 984) Ys. 57.25; <rAi//y^ dat do- 

Yj.' 57.25:— Cf. alM> aJlj2>7;.<y/#r'««-.-.-[Skt rf///-, Phi. aha] 
opra* (prob. from y2«^>).: sdj. 'evil, bad*.— Ksp. tf^n? ma'nyu *the 

Evi'l Spirit, Ahriman*. — Ys. 57.. 17,32; Yd- 19.5,6,8,9. 
0^4 (from a, Gr* § 436): adv. then, so*. — Ys. 5/;25,26. 

[Skt ddAa; Old P. ada\ 
0d(l*ty»- (from t a •\' ds^tya-y. adj. 'unlawfur.— Vsp. fS^i. 
adHi (from ada^a/j: adv. fthereuponr sfterwarda*.— 'Yd. 6.50. 
n/ (from a, Gr. % 431): adv. 'then but and'.— o^ Ys. 57.10.— Cf. also adsf. 
aft', see under i <^ 

1 apa, see dnder aim^ Gtf. g 422. 

2 a Ma. (i) prep. w. ace. * along, upon'; (2) vW. prefix, Gr. § 733»5 — 

€f. anajitiMQ*. 

ana'wt.vdr'iidi' (from lo-f e«"w> -r vdr^ffU- ^. v.): adj. *out of the rain* 
(lit. ' not having rain '). — Yd. 6.50. 

aHapiimti''({fQim I9^afiiiata-)x adj. 'without interruption . -V^p. 15.2 
(the Phl.V. at Vs. 19.5 explains as not interrupted by falling asleep). 

anapyakda' (from i a ■\- apya^da-)'. adj. ^without addition*.— Vsp. 15.2 
(the Phl.V. at Ys. 29.5 explaUis the addition to be the insertion 
of some other A v. text in the midst of the recital). 

^WP-mat^U" (from 2«iia-|> yman-): adj. 'devoted*- Yt 5.8- 

anavupftabdimna- (from i ik-\''\fhabdd^ q- v)' plcpL adj. 'never sleep- 
ing*.— Ys. 57.16 (bis). 

indptt" (from la+itf/*): adj. 'without wster*.— sb. m. •• desert*. — 
Yd. 3.a3.<«-*-[Phl annpi New P. $i9b 'pure, unmixed' (Horn)] 



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audhitm* (from 1 a-^-Ohita-' q. v.); adj. *undefiled'. — Esp. nomen )>ropr. f. 
Ardvi Sara Andhita (*the high, powerfal, undefiled goddess'), 
*Avctxi(. — Yt. 5.1 scq., see note— -[Old P. aitakata-] 

a mm: (i) adv., vbl. prefix ((7r. § 733)-— (*) V^P' w. ace. * along, after*, 
(ff^* § 735.— [Skt. dnm; Old P. anuv] 

a H u,p dipwa- (from anu- -|- y//- q. v.) : adj. * purauing '. — Yt. 14. 1 5. 

a m my A mm a- (from i « 4- ttyamna* q. v.) : ptcpl. adj. * not wanting \— sb. a. 
■a aurplua'. — Vsp. 15.1 note. 

ammsmk' (from itf + jv/o^): adj. 'unwilUng'.— hmwjJ ace. sg. n. advl. 
(Gr. § 934) Ys. 57.i«. 

mmya-: pfon. adj. {Gr, § 443) 'anpdier, elBe'.>-Vd. 3.29. 
[Skt amyd'. Old P. aniya-; Phi. ^A^f] 

• ^tar*: adv., prep, 'within, between'. 

[Skt. amtdr; Old P. a(n)tar; Phi. andarg; New P. tf/wizr] 

antar^.nmima' (from « • + »•) : sb. n. * the inaide '. — ai^ar^Maimai {Gr, 
§ 731,4) Y«. 57.21. 

«/., J/-/ sb. f. (ddn. Gr, § 286) 'water'.— Yt. 5.3 etc.; Yd. 323; Yd. 6.46 
seq.; Yd. 19.5. — [.Skt. •p-: Old P. ap-; Phi. ap; New P. J^) 

Y*P'» '/-• vb. cl. i,S, 16 'reach, overtake.'.— tf/tf^^'V^' pres. indlc. act. 
Yv 57.29; afinie pass. {Gr. § 578) Ys. 57.29.— [Skt. J/-] 

tf/tf ; adv., vbl. prefix'away, forth ', Gr, gg 733, 735— [Skt. ^P^> Old P. apa*] 

apajiara^ {from apa-^^ffiar-^y. sb. m. 'outlet*.— Yt. 5.4,5. 

apamiUma-: snperl. adj. 'higheat^ aupreme'. — Ys. 26.2; Ys. 57.4. Ap- 
parently apamdt^ma' is formed from apana- pf. ptcpl. mid. Y^P'* 
npm = Skt apdttd^: hence j 'having reached the most, highest, 
supreme'; construed also with abl. Ys. 57.4. So Geldner. 

apiiHia- (from fl»^i+^/«r-): ptcpl. adj. 'interrupted*. — Cf. anapifUta'. 

apmpra^ {ftom i «+/•)• *<^J- 'childleas'.—Vd. 3.24. — [Skt. apu/ra-] 

ap9r^mSy£ia' (from i a^^- p^r^ma -\- 3yu-): sb. m. 'youth*. — Ys. 36.9. 
[Phi. ap^rfUUi; New P. imrnd] 

apya^da'- (ftrta u*pi^mt£9- q. v.):,adj. < intercalated '.-—Cf. a«a/»f0{i£7-. 

a/ratafffti* (from m4-/r»): adj. 'without offapring'. — Ys. x 1.1,3. 

a/sman^: sb. n. 'measure, metre'. — Cf. asmaniva^t^, 

[Phk Vers, has patmdn ' measure ' ; Nar. has pramd^a-l 

afsmamivant" {ham m/smam-); adj. 'metrical*. — afsmanivqn 'the me- 
trical parts' ace. pi. n. {Gr. § 292) Ys. 57.8 note. 

/ijwa-; sb. m. ' strength '.—Ys. 57-3»23; Yt 14.2,3; Yt. 14.7.9 CStrength*, 
personified)*— -[Skt. ^ara-] 

amava^i' {from ama-^ Gr. § 292 b. dcln.): adj. 'strong*. — Ys. 57.10; 
Vsp. X5.3; Yt. 14.12.— Fern. amqvaUi nom. sg. Yt. 5.3.— Super!. 
amovaitfmd Yt. Z4.3.— -jSkt. dmavant*; VIA. amdvand] 



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•m9r9tat» (from i a-^yttuir', Gr. § S43): sb. f. * immortality, Amereut'. 

One of the Amesha Spentas, and always meDtioD«d in connection 

with Haurvam q. v. See (7r» |ntrod. p. xxvi § 38. -^Ys. 57.24. 
[Phi. ammrd<U\ 
mm 9 la- (form ^amarla* from ymat", Gr. § 163): adj. ' immortal ', Esp. 

Am9Jle ^Htta, the Amshaspands, Gr. Introd. p. xxv § 32. — 

Ys. 26.3; Yi. 57.2 (ace. p].),6,8,i2,23; Yd. 19.9. 

[Skt amfta^: ef. Phi. amidspand; New P. amUspam{\ 
ay a, $ee under tfAw, Gr, § 422. 
myawka^ (from a/nil-q. ▼., (?r. § 344): sb. n« 'iron*. — ayavhahe gen. sg. 

((7r. § 980) Ys. IX.7.— [Skt. dyasa-^ 
syattkaina^ (from ayaJk- q. ▼;, cf. Gr. § 829): adj. *made of iron*. — 

siibst n. •iron*.-— Yd. 6.46. — [Phi. asTnTn; New P. Skanfn] 
ayar-, ayan- (dcln. Gr. %% 311, 337); sb. n. *day\— Ys. 57I7.3*. 
aynrKbara- (from ayar* '\- bar-y. sb. m. *da]f'a journey'.— Yt. 5.4. 
ayah^: sb. n. 'metal, iron*. — Cf. ayarnktana^, ayawha-. 

[Skt. dyas^; Phi. <w/«/ New P. ilhan\ 
«/**-# »«« undtr myar: .. ^ 
yfar*: vb. cl. 3 'fo, move, come (as fortune)'. Yus.i.frd ^bestow, 

allot*. YpaUi ^advance, attack'. — us,fr9r»naoi (Gr. 

§ 569) Ys. 11.4.— Cf. also /diVi.^r'/i-.— ^[Skt. ar-, r-] 
araPwya^ (from i<i + r«): adj. * ill-ordered, improper'. — Vsp. 15.1. 
mr*du^: adj. 'high, exalted '.-* Fern, urdvi, epithet of An&hita q. v. — 

Yt. 5.1 —[Cf. Skt. iirdhvA', Gr. § 48] 
mr^dra-: adj. 'generoue, giving gifts'.— Yt. 5.132. 
«r's«-.* sb. m. * battle '.—Ys. 57.12. — [Cf. New P. ratm (Horn)] 
• ri^t */•*/••• adv. 'right, truly*. — Cf. arlufda*, arhi-^, 
«r /«!•-.* adj. /male, virile*. — arjflna, ariUnahe (a-dcln., Gr. §310), arfnd 

gen.sg. m. Yd. 3.24; Yt 14.7,15; arlnqm gen. pi. m. Yt. 5.2,5; 

Yt. 14.12 — [Cf. Skt r^-bAd.] 
mrim^da* (from arZ-f •<•): adj. 'rightly spoken*. — ^byasca abl. pi. m. 

Yt 5.9; Vt 14.5. 
ariti- (fr. arh, cf. Gr. % 788): sb. f. 'rectitude, Arehti' (Loyalty).- Ys. 5733. 
I «vtf-; duroonstr. pron. stem {Gr. § 432) 'that'. — Ys. 26.2 j Ys. 57.29; 

Yt 57; Yt 14.12. 

[Old P. wo-; Phi, d, <iw(?); New P; d (au)\ 
%avm: sdv., vbl. prefix 'to, down to, upon, in'. 

[Skt dva; Old P. ava (in avm-sfif'); Phi. J-] 
•vPm (from \ava->^\ adv. 'thu% to'. — Yt 14.7 seq^ 
mma^t" (from Invo-): demonstr. deriv. (Gr. § 441) 'that, such'. — haca 

mmpyo si»r»byd dat abl. pi. Yt 5.132. — [Phi. hSvand] 



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r 5 avavaig/ aiavam- 

0V4tviffti (from i ttva-): proo. md). 'such, so greal*. — avavafti ikoin> sg. f. 
Yl 5.3. — [PM. avivan^^ 

avafaiA, He€ mider j/^t**/-. •' '^ 

ava%a*te, see under |/w«-. 

avah-: «b. n. «hclt)'.— Ys. 57.3; Yt. 5.13a. — [Skt. «»<«-] 

4$v40if avJlin, iee under l/'^/-. 

tfvi, «<?« (cf. e'w)t (t) adv., vbl. prefix. — (2) prep, and postpos. w. ace, 
gen. 'to,uiito*.-~As adv. Vd. 3.25.— A.s prtp. w. ace. Ys. 57.23,^4: 
Yt. 5.3»4»»32; w. gen. Vd. 6.46,47, 

Yfti»: vb. cl. s (^- § 566) Teach, attain'. —Cf. osaA- fSkl. a4^] 

at an*: sb. m. * stone'. — asdnaffva (stem asdaa-, Gr. § 509) loc. pi. 
Vd. 6.51, see note. 

[Skt. rtitf#i-; Old P. «/«/<-/ PhL Jtf»^/ New P. satig\ 

a say a: adj. * Shadowless' (epitbet of Sraosha's divine hordes).— Ys. 57.271 
see not^.— [Skt. tfr>^K<^-/^r. g 17] 

as ah' (from p^a-r-): sb. m. 'place, space'. — Cf. ma'nivasak-, 
[Cf. Skt. dsU"] 

asara-: sb. m. 'bristle' (?), cf. Lat. acuhus COcldner).— Cf. tiii.asara', 

ati*{ &b. m. *bone'. — asta nom. pi. Vd. 19.7; aMddii, uzdHii inslr. general 
P^ (^'*- §§ **9» 944) Vd. 6*49; asiqm gen. pi. Vd. 6.46,47. 
[Of. Skt asthoH', dsthi-; Phi. ast; New P. tff/fl>&] 

astvant' (from Af/r» <7r. § 857):' adj, (dcJn. Gr. § 291 b) 'corporeal, mate- 
rial* (epithet of avhu-t ga()d-).'-Ytvi%, astva^tt^.—M^.^Ab^z^yZi; 
Vt.5.1; Yt. 14.1; Vd. 3.23; yd. 6.44,47»49- 
[Cf. Skt. ostMatdHt-, asiki'mant-] 

dspa^: sb. m. 'horse'.^Fein. aspi'*mzxe. — Vil ii.i,2; Ys. 57.28; Vt. 14.9. 
— On aipaht aStrava see under' a^ird-* • 

[Skt. i/CMt-/ Old P. aspa-i Phi. asp,- NeW P. at^] 

0spo,staojfah' (from a»4-j/»): adj. 'stouter than a hors^ *. — AfTstffa 
aspoMaoyehts nom. pi. f< Yt. 5.7. 

a/.' intensive prefja w. adjs.-^Cf. aiMcjaM-, a^Mizu-, 

aja- (for aria- from j/'tfr-, ^r. § 163): sb. n. 'right, righteousness, 
Asha, Righteousness' (personified). See Gr. Inirod. p.'xxv g. 34. 
— «/*/ Aaca *in accordance with Righteousness'; afake rai&m 
•the master of R.*; oiake gRipa» *ihe Household of Faith'. — 
Ys. S6.2; Vs. 57-2.4,»7: Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.$.-- Cf. also aia vahilia. 
I Skt. ftd; Old P. arta-; Phi. ahlav\ 

a$avan-, ajlaon^^ afduu- [horn afa-): adj, (dcln. C^r. § 313) 'right- 
eous' (of persons), 'sacred, holy' (of things), —^Fem. a^amti'^^ 
— This word corresponds to the Biblical use of 'righteous, godly' 
in the Psalms, lis opposite is drtgvant-, dnm%t' q. v. See Gr, 



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tfJif - * — ahuna^ 



57 



Iritrod. p. XXV § 34. — aiavand nom. pi. m. 'pure creatures' Y<* 11.1; 

afaunqni gen. pi. Ys. s6.t; etc.-— [8Jct fidvan-] 
aia- vahiila (from a^-f p«): sb. ru 'Asha Vahishta' ' (Best Righteous- 
ness), one of tlie Amesha Spentas. See under a^-.— 9i»m 

vakiUifH nom. sg. n. Ys. $7*24. 

(Phi. artavohiik, alavahUit New P. ardikehUi\ 
ahaojah- (from ai + aojah-) : adj. * most strong *, — ^Y*. 57. 1 5. 
• if- (for <fr/«- from yir*, Gr, § 163): sb. f. (1) * piety, virtue*; '{») 'gract, 

favor, blessing'; (3) 'Aahi Vanuhi* (incarnation of Piety and 

its resulting blessings). — ^Ys. 26.5; Ys. 57.3. 
[Cf. Phi. ardiiiMiHg] 
MiirA" (from Yaz-, cf. Gr. § 166); sb. f. *goad. whip'.— Esp. 4spah€ 

aitrd a horse-goadf or whip used in connection with the sraoio** 

carana (q.'V.) in religious castigation. — Yd. 6.48, see note. 
[Skt. dftra-; Phi. ailr] 
4tJ,h4zu» (from iff4-^«): ad|, 'having strong fora-legs* (of camel). — 

alMt^ffJ nom. sg. m. (Gr. g 265) Vt. 14.13. 
aiya'{{Tomafa;ai4-)'. adj. 'righteous, pious, blessed ' (epithet of Srao- 

sha).— Ys. 57.2 (^im acc.),3,4, 13, 14,25,26.33,34. — I Phi. oA/t] 
Y^'^* \*b. cl. I *drive\ — -i-upa 'strike, inflict blows' (in religious 

castigation, see upStana-). — updzoi^ pres. opt. act. 3 sg. Yd. 6.48. 
|Skt. €j-] 
a tit a- (from I /r-f s^/tf- q. v.); adj. « unborn*. — Ys. 26.6.— -[Skt. ajdia-] 
as9m: pron. isi. perj», (dcln. Gr* % 386) *I\— ^jwwi yd Jta^mo *1 who faro) 

Haoma' Ys. IX.3; cf. Yl 5.6 etc. 

[Skt. o^m : Old P. adorn ; PhL am, -m (end) ; New P. m/itf, 
-i»i (end.)] 
^Md^ijf, see under as/". 
Yl ak»} vb. cl. 9 (conjn. Gr. § 530 acq.) *be*.--irA/fi/ Ys. xr.3; Vt. 14.3? 

tf^i Yd. 19.6: osti Ys. 57.14,25; Yt5.3; Yt. 14.I; Yd. 6.47 ; 

Vd. Z9.9; a«A/« pret. 3 pi. Yt. 5.7; asia imperau Vsp. 15.2. — 

Cf also J^3/qm. ' 

fSkt. las-; Old P. a^-; cf. Phi. Aasi; New P. em, i, Hs^j 
Y^f^ • ^b. cl. I, 4 (pass.) 'throw, dart*. — a''p/timanay<p pres. pass, ptcpl. 

(see kvmsta-) Ys. 57.28. — [Skt. 2 as-] 
laku', see under avhu-* 
zmikn: ah* iti. Moid'.—Cf. nJkura.. 
mkmn0' (from mhtt', Gr, § 848^: sb. m. 'the Ahuna Vatrya*. One of 

the sacred formulas or prayers, and so hamed from its initial 

words yepa aha vu^ry^. See Gr.. Introd. p. xviii § 13,— 

Ys. 57.S1', Vd. 19.10. 



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J 9^ akura dfrnmtak-' 

ahura- (from ahu-, Gr, § S53): sb. m. (i) 'lord'; (2) < Lord, Ahura 
ifasda' (cf. maufHk-), the supreme god Ormazd. See Gr, In- 
troduction p. xxiv § 31.— Vs. 11.4, et passim. 

[Skt. dttira-; Old F. aura-; Phi. alAarmoMd, korwwtd; 
New P. A^*i«s</] 

akuradata- (from <i«+ iiAr/<r-): adj; 'Created by Ahiira '.—Yt. 5.132; 
Yu 14. 1 seq. 

ahurQ^lkaijla* (from a'+Z"): adj. 'belonc^ing to the fmith of Ahura*. 
-Yt. 5.1. 

aham^mfr^nc' (from i ahfi- 4- \'mlnrc-, Gr. § 877a): adj.- « world- 
destroying '.—Ys. 57.15. 

mk/Hdi, •mS$, •my a, see under aim, Gr. § 422. 

Av. *-«• J. 

J, a: (i) adr., vbL prefix * hither, unto, in*; (2) prep, and end. postpos. 

w. ace, abl., gen., loc. *up to, in'. — Ys. xx.7; Ys. a6.10; Vs. 57.33 

(yefkad^a). See also ddahyu- etc. 

[Skt. a; Old P. &; Phi. a: New P. J] 
Jfl/ (from «-, Gr. § 431): adv. 'then* (lit. 'from that'),— Ys. ix.8; Yt. M-I 

etc.— Ys. XI. 1, 6 *but\— [Skt di\ 
Si: inteij. w. voc. *0'. — Ys. 57.25; Yd. X9.9. — As particle (?) * indeed' 

Yd. 323. — [Skt Hi; Phi. St; New P. d/] 
Star": sb. m. (dcln. Gr, J 330 ^^^^^—Sf rosea gen. sg. Vsp. 15.3. 

[I'hl. atSr; liew P. d./ar, dial] 
Siintt- (from H'+zanu-, 6V. §§ 77 N. i, 889): adj. •knee-high*.— Ys. 57.6 

(Phl.VCTs. has catui jdnuk).^[Ci. Skt •bhi-j^a-] 
Mfravatt" (from dtar-): sb. m. (dcln. Gr, § 313 N. lb) *prie«t*. De- 
signation of the highest caste in the Avesta. See also under 

rapaiUar't vastrya fiuya^i', — Yt xi,6. 

[Cf. Skt. atharvatt-^; PhL dsarvan; New P. dUrbdm-] 
dpriilm (from d-^J^ritya-, Gr, §§ 375, 731): adv. ♦thrice*.— Ys, 57.31. 
ddahyu* (firom d-^-dafiyu-)'. adj. *in this country*. — Ys. 26.9. 
ddU"S sb. m. * spring, stream*. So rendered if PhL Vers, be read 9l% jay 

*spring\ cf. Av. Hdavo {Gr. § 19) Yt. 8.29; otherwise Phi. Vers. 

is read as jdn *life'. — Cf. dda.frdduna". 
dde./rddana- (from ddU'-^/r>): adj. 'increasing the springs*. — ^Yt 5.1. 
*/-, see under tf/-. 
d/9nte, see under y^/-. 
dfrivaeah" (from dfrt'-rv^)'. adj. 'speaking words of benediction 

(malediction) \ According to the Phi. Vers, thlb w;oid dfr; like 



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d/ff-^ifyejak' 59 

»ava»'if(s, may be used of cursing as well as of blessing. — d/ri' 

vacawko nom. pi. m. Ys. ix.l. 
*/ft' (from Y/rU q. v.): sb. f. •benediction (malediction) '.—Cf. iffri' 

vacah- (a/riii').'^[C{, Skt. dpH*; cf. New P. H/rin] 
a Ay a, see under aim, Gr. § 422, 

amamamAa' (from J + m<raaA-): sb. n. 'eagerness, ardor'. — Yt. X4.X2. 
dyapta^ (from tf + V'^tf/-): sb. n. 'reward, boon'. — Yt. 5.13a. 

[Phi. ayMfl: cf. New P. ydftan\ 
dyu-: sb. n. 'age'.— Cf. «//r»i»4ry«*«-. — [Skt Jjw-] 
arm am (from )/'« r- -f i»a'/<- q. v.): sb. f. •harmony. Concord, Armaiti' 

(Genius of the Earth), one of the Amesha Spentas. See Gr, 

Introd. p. xxvi § Tfi,-'Sp9itta armaUU Vs. 57.24. 

[Skt ardmrnH; PhL sptnd-armat; New. P. sfetui^armai] 
asiita-, see under dsu-, 
dtU": adj. (compar. Gr. § 365) * swift '.—d^ftfiw ace. »g. m. V» 57»«i. — 

Compar. Osyapha nom. du. m. Ys. 57.28. — Super!* dsihfm ace. 

sg. m. Ys. 57.13- 
• [Skt. dsu-^ dsiftka-] 

9s4i*n(i- (from Y^gan-): sb. f. 'understanding, explanation*. See Gr. 

Introd. p. xii.§ 3.— Cf. ma^UUsa^^ti; po^ra.Ssa'n^i'. 
[Cf. Phi. gamd] 
ysA', i/- (q. v.): vb. d. 3 'seek diligently', e. g. ii^mhaita Yt 19.53. 

— Cf. paHydJti-, yi //-. 
A kit a-: adj. 'defiled'.— Cf. andhiid- (^Ji/Vi -> — [Cf. Skt asita-] 
dhairi' (from ahura-, Gr, §§ 825 d, 20) : adj. 'of Ahura'.— <3Afli<W//r4ijpirJ, 

dha'rii ikalio Ys. 57.24,— [Cf. Skt. dtUri-] 
dhikirya- (from ahura-, Gf» g§ 825 d, 20):' adj.' 'lordly, belonging to 

AhUra'.— Ys. 26.3 (of Amesha Spentas). 

Ay. «» #. 

I-.' dem. pron. stem, see under aim, Gr, § 4^2. 

Y*-' vb, cl. a 'go, come'. — \-ava 'come down'. — \-fra,,ava 'at- 
tain to, descry*.— fl^W prcs. indie, act 3 sg. Vd. 3.24; yA 
\iapri$va avdUi * when he goes to his femafes' (of male cover- 
ing the female) Yt 14.12; fravditi »he descries* (cf. Skt prati 
.. ava .. i *erreichen*) Yt 14.13; ye^ntt pres. Indic. act 3 pL 
{Gr, § 65 exmpl.) Ys. 57.23; aini prcs. subj. act. i sg. Vd. 3.27 
note.— [Skt 1-; Old P. «-] 

ipyejuk-: sb. n. 'distress, corruption*. — ^Pytji^ nom. pi. Ys. 57.14. 
[Skt. iydjas',' Phi. sij; cf. New P. tfj] 



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60 **» — tiparo' 

ida (from /-): 9Ay, 'here*. — Ys. a6^,6: Vsp. 15.1,2 *ttow* (i. e. at this point, 
Skt ihd 2; so Angl. Sax. Air); Vd. 3.a4 .«fti caraiU *)ttst so, the 
maiden' (iit. here i. e.. in this special ca»e); V^l. 3.27,29. 
fSkf, M; CM P. iM] 
idA$ (from ida): adv. *herc*.—f/0/tfv Y»* 57.33 (bis). 
1/ (from f*): tfltengthening p&iticle, Or. $ 397.-*«[Skt. /V] 
ima": dem. pron. stem, &ee under aim. Gr. § 422. 
[Sltt. imd-; Old P, #*««-. New P. ij»«»] 

y«V//-.' vb. d. 4 *die\ t-pat^ 'perish*.— ^Wj/tf-, para,*rista*\A«»6* 

t . pfts». ptcpl, Vs.a6.7,ii, Yd. 6^44,46,49; tririjpHiqm pf act* ptq>l 

gen. pL Ys^ a 6.6. 
irista-, see under \firip-. 
"irlti puj^qm^ see under Y^ip^, 

isai.vastra-: namen propr. m. 'Isatvastra' — oldest son of Zoroaster, 
and according to tradition the fonnder of the priestly caste.— r 
Ys, Jl6$.-*-fPhl. isatvajtar-] 
yi«/- (see also Y^^'* ^^')' ^^* ^^- ^ *8««>ff deaira pctcre*. — -{-pafH 
*busy one's self with* (\rorship)* '^patiijlaia pres. imperat , 
act. 2 pi. Ys. 57.13; if$& pass, ptcpl.. nom. sg. m. Vsp. 15.2. 
[Skt.. I/-] * . 

yai/..- vb. cl. 4 *acnd, drive'.— Cf. tf^/«tf-< — [Skt. 2»/-; Old P. //-] 



Av. T- f 
im, see under «#«»> Gr. § 432. 

Av. ) u\ 

ufda- (from "[/"wr-, pass, ptcpl. w. Mtf, GV. § 77 N. 3): adj. 'spoken*. 

— snbst. n. 'word',— Cf. ana/fyafOti','^ [Skt. ukthd-] 
ujra-: adj. * mighty *.—Cf. aojUta' (superl.).— [Skt. ayra-] 
uta-: conj. *and\— »/a , . , uia •both— and' Ys. xx.j,3; Yt. I4«t* 

(Skt. uid; Old P. utd; Phi. «.• New P. n] 
ppar (r) adv., vbl. prefix. — (2) prep, and postpos. w. acCi, dat. *to, upon, 
on'.— With acc Yt. 14.13; w. dat Vd. 3.^5. 

[Skt. upa; Old P. upd; New P. ba, hah\ 
upa'ri (cf. upa)\ preph 'above'. — With acc. Vd. 6.50; Yt. 14.7,9 ^^^'^ 

[Skt. updri; Old P. upuriy; Phi. apar ; New P. ^tfr] 
upa^ri^nedma- (from »«»4-.7»»): sb. n. 'upper side, top'. — Vd. 6.50 note. 
upaphacayeni, see under y'^c-. 
upara- (from *r/fl): adj. 'superior .—Cf. uparaidt-. — [Cf. Skt. upara-^ 



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uparmiai' — utdOaa'- 6 1 

uparat&t- (from uparm-, Gr. §842): sb. f. • •upcriority *, e»p. Victo* 

rious ^Superiority (vana^n^i uparatdt), Genius of Victory. — 

Ys. 57.33t — fCf. Skt upardUit-\ 
npHzanU' (from »/<i+ V'tf^-): sb. n. 'blow, stripe*.— -Technical expression 

for stroke or stripe in/Iicted upon tbe body, as a religious cas- 

tigation to remove sin. — Vd. 6.48 note. 
ufyemi, see under ^fvaP", 
nyami^a'^* see under 'yf^'- 

^rvafa^ (from ytvar-, Gr, § 793 N. 2): sb. m* 'IHenil*.— Cf. a»fvapa'. 
»rvmn' (dissy., prob. ^rm>ttn» from |/^2 v^r-, Or, §§ 191. 314)'* sb. m. 

'soul', or that faculty in man which gives freedom of will to 

choose good or eTi!.— ^Vs. 26.4,7,11 i>ote. 
[Fhl. rO^ft; New P. rttvan] 
^rva^i- (prob. from y I wrr-, G*r. § 191): adj. ...?, epithet of camel. 

- yt. 14.li (cf. Vd. 22.10; Yt. 14.19)- 
itrv4tra*: sb. f. 'tree, plant'.- Vd. 3.23; Vd. 6.46,47. 

rCf. Skt. tirvdrS-; f^\. arvar-] 
y^^riri*-; vb. cl. 4* 6, zo *turft*;— 4-»f *part asunder*. — viMrvfsyai 

pres. (scdry.) subjunct act. 3 8ig. Vd. 19.7!— [Gf Skt, vrh-] 
uva-, ffa- (-*n), Gr. § 68 N. i): adj. du. 'two, both*. — fta^fya Ys. 57.25,29. 

1 [Cf. Skt: u^Jkd'] 

us, MS (6>. § 753 N. 2): adv., vbl. prefix 'up, forth, out*. — Ys. 11.4; 

Vs. 57*25.— Cf. also utdd^yu", 

[Skt. ud; Old P ud: Phi. *z, New P. «-, «/-] 
us ah* (from yvii/-)» sb. n. <will'. — Cf. amtsah-, 
|/*«/-, see under y/'zvak". 
uiastara^ (from 0/a^-): adj. * eastern ^ — uiastaht (kiififvo) loc. sg. m. 

Vs. 57.29; ujfas/arHf haea {Gr, § 19 b) , , uiostarai*by3 Vd. 19.$. 
[Phi. hdlasiar] 
tiiak^, «r/tf*- (fiom y3wr*% «/-): sb. f. (dcln. Gr. % 357) •dawn*.— 

Cf. f<i^T/ara>.-- ISkt. i//ir-/ Phi. ^/, M ko}'kSfH\ 
mi$' (perh. from YS^*^^'* ^^' 'enlighten'); sb. n. •mind'.- t^fi sec. ffg.B. 

(not dual) Ysp. 15.1.— [Phi Ail; New P. M] 
uliann-: sb. m. * vital principle* (of the body). — uitBnfm (aec. c= nom. sg. 

Or. § 937) Vd. X9.7. 
mitrc': sb. m. ' carnal '.-—Yt i«, 11^12. 

fCf. Skt. uitra-; Phi. ustar-: New P.*ul/ar'] 
MX, see under <yjr, and ct (/r. § 753 N. 2. 
utdahyu" (from /la + i&^y*'-) : adj. 'outside the countr. '.- V*. e6.9. 

[Phi. wftfU^iJ 
mMdana- (from la -f V^^-)" s^* '^^ * elevation, structure'.— Vd. 6.50 note. 



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62 *• — karano' 



At. ^ «. 



ytf •: vb. cl. 4 'be wandiig* deficient*.— w^a/Mifa pres. ptcpL mid. ace. pi. n. 
Meficitt' (i.e. in the audit of Life Book).-*Vsp. 15.I.— Cf. 
anuyamna*, (ana-J. ^Cf. Skt amd-] 

Av. P^ A 

apAam^: sb. n. 'mouth, lace*. — 09k4ng ^en. abl. sg. Vd. 3.39 note. 

[Skt d^aV] 

Av. t ^. 

9r»iwa-: adj. ((7r. § 819) 'raised, uplifted '.—Ys. S7-i6. 
[Cf. Skf. tfri^tf-1 

Av. » /(. 

i&tf-: xotcrtog. pron. (^r. § 406) 'wbo, what*. \-cil indef. pron. ((7r. 

§ 408) 'every, any *.— i6<7 nom. sg. m. Yl. 5.8; Yt. Z4.1 ; Vd. 3.23*; 
kana taya in$tr. sg. m. Vd. 19.8; kahmSi dat. sg. m. Yt. 5.8; 
hake gen. sg. m. Vd. 19.8.-^ i(d nom. sg. f. Vd. 6.47. —' Indef. 
kasd^a nom. sg. m. Yt. 5.4. 

[Skt. ka-: Old P. ka-; Phi. ke, ka; Xcw P. kih'\ 

kmefa-: sb. m. (i) 'hill', (2) 'hump' (of camel).— Cf. stviMofa-. 

[Old P. kau/ar; Phi. k4/; New P. kdk 'moiuiUin', kdkm^, 
kahab 'hamp'] 

ka^yqm, see under 2iavi; 

km/a*: sb. m. 'foam, slime*. — Yt. 14.13. 

[Skt. Jtapka-; Phi. Aa/; New P. ka/] 

kMm9r»da': sb. n. 'skull, cranium* (of evil beings).— Ys. 5 7.10 ; Ys. 57.31 
(collective).-^ [Phi. kamSr; Kew P. kamar 'cupola'} 

Jtam^r* dd,J an- (from *• 4- Yj^^') • *^J' * •uniting the skull *. — yoMS 
gen. s'g. m. (of Sraosha) Ys. 57.33 ; Phi. Vers, has kamdrtatir. 

kayada»: adj. 'heretic (0, Kayadha*. — An obscure word denoting an im- 
pious person or class of beings; Phi. Vers, has kSstar, — Ys. 57* 15. 

Yikar-i vb. cl. 5 ^pr, § 568) * make *.— Caus. 'cultivate*.-Hbr»iiiw'/f 
pres. indie, act. 3 sg. Vd. 3.23 ; hr^nav^ pret. indie, (injunct.) act 
Vd. 6.50; — kdrayi^ii caus. pres. indie, act Vd. 3.SJ. — Cf. alto 
it,r*/tf-. — [Skt kar-; Old P. kar-: Phi. kartan; New P. kmrdam] 

y 2 ;6 a r - ; vb. cl. 5, 9 'cut*.— Cf. akarana-, — [Phi. karitaian ; New P. kinOdam^ 

karana" (from Y^^^')'- *^* ^' 'end, boundary*. — (vUpt) karmmd (eg^ 
for pi. Gr. § 913 N. i) Yt 5^4.— -Cf. also akaruna-. 
[Phi. kmndrak; New P. kaftSrak, karan] 



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kur^pan': sb. m. <Karpan',<>r.nai&e of a class of wicked unbelievers. 

The tradition renders 'deaf (i.e. to the word of God). Ac- 

cording to Zad Sparam there were five brothers of the Karapftn 

family/ foes of Zoroaster, cf. West, Fhl Texts tr. S^,E. V. p. 1S7. 

See alto 2 kavi htlom.^^ar^/mqm gen. pi. Yt 14.4. 
Y^^rl': vb. cL z (i) 'draw', (a) 'draw circles, furrows, to plow*. — 

karjiya gerundiye nom. sg. f. [Gr, § 716) Vd. 3.24. — Cf. also 

akarha-, karH'. 

[Skt karr-; PhL kaMtan; New P. kaMan, kiStan] 
karid' (from ykarJf-): sb. f. 'circuit*. — kar/ayd^ gen. sg. Ys. xi.a note. 

[Cf. Skt kirtmaH". 'race-coarse'] 
kmrfivaiie* (from yi»r/-) : sb. m . ** plowman, peasant '.—karfiva/a instr. 

sg. Vd. 3*24. 
karltm- (from yi&ar/-): pass. ptcpL, adj. * plowed '.—CC ak^riUh, 

[Skt. kr^id'] 

kar/par', kariyan- (from YkarJ-): sb. n. (dcln. Gr. §§ 311, 337) 
*sone, clime*. Name of the seven divisions into which, accotd- 
ing to the Iranians, the world was divided. — karfpar* ace. ig. 
Ys. 57-3* J vtspdJi karfvqn general pi. {Gr, §§ 3»S» 230, 308) 
Yt. 5.5.— Cf. also Atf//J.^r/i^««W-«— [Phi. kih^ar; New P. kiluar] 

1 kavi': sb. m. 'King', — title of the Persian monarchs of the Kayftniaa 

dynasty, Kai Kobad, Kai Khosraw, etc. — kavoiJ vUUUpakt *oC 
King Vishtaspa (q. v.), Kai Gusht)^' Ys. a6.5; Yt 5.132. 
[Cf. Skt kavi-; PhL itof; New P. kai] 

2 kavi*: sb. m. 'Kavi', — name of a class of wicked infidels or demons. 

According to the tradition 'blind' (Le. tothe fitith), cf. Aar'- 

pan, — kao/qm gen. pi. {Gr, § 63 b) Yt 144. 
kasu'T adj. 'small, little*. 

[Cf. Skt kasu- (? nomen propr.); Phi. kas; New P. kik] 
kMsu.pdina' (from k^+p*)\ adj. < small-heded *.— Yt 14.17. 
kasciica, ytt under >&#-. 
kaidya- (from kayada* (i,\,)\ adj. 'belonging to the Kayadha'.-^sb. m. 

'adherent of K^.—kd'dyehe gen. sg. masc. Ys. 57.15 (cf. Ys. 61.3). 
k9r»ta' (from yii&ar-): pass. ptcpU, adj. 'made'.— Cf. dakmaJt^r^ia-, 

kuk9r*ta'.^[S\X. kfia-; Old P. karta-; Phi. kari; New P. kardak] 
k9r»flhar- (from kfkrp—^-Y har-Y adj. 'corpae-eating'.—Vd. 0.45,46,47. 
k9krP': sb. f. 'form, body *.— /6Mr//i instr. sg. Yt 14.2 seq. 

fSkt kfp-; Phi. k€rp\ 
kqsa^ya-: sb. n. nomen propr. 'Kansavya'i—namc of a lake, from the 

waters of which the Saviour, Saoskyant, is to arise.—- Vd. 19.5. 
{PhL kydnsdi] 



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6^ kva-^ifap- 

kv^ (from ka- or ku-, Gr, §§ 406-407): tnterrog. adv. -where*.— 
Va. 6.44,49.— [Skt. /tva] 

Ar & t. 

fa§^aii£: ^n uncertain ivord, Vd. 19.5. The Phi. Vers, render!: the wordu 

j>qm fM^/af'fe an Uo whom one prayi;' and implies that the form 

is a verb. See note ad loc. Some render as nomen propr. 
fraoSdanf iffOni Yf/aoid-) : ptcpl. adj. * hard^ firm \ — (fravaiim) fraoi- 

Mtqm superl. ncc. sg. f. Ys. 26.3. KliLVers. here ba^ 'most* 

ftrm, most severe in matters of decision'. 
fraoiii' (from Yt^*^ q. v., cf. Gr. § 692); vb. deriv. 'make hard'* — 

Cf. J^raoiiiaiti'. 
iraiM' (from |/"i*o/'-): sb. m. 'wisdom'. — Cf. frafwUta-, 

[Skt. krdtu : Phi. I^iraf : New P. iirnd} 
^mpwiita* (superl. attached to l^ratu-, Jfratumaiti']: adj. * wisest ^ — 

Ys. 26.2. 
y^jfrw-; vb. *hurt, be raw . — Cf. iraro-, vf^yfy/wnii/-. — fSkt. krtf-] 
Yk^ui- (j-formation from \^irti')\ vb. 'be terrible'. 
^rura' (from* J^^ri/-); adj. 'terrible, wounding*.—: Ys. 57.25. 

[Skt. krurd-^ 
|rwl- (from Y^"')' "^i- 'terrible, wounding'. -Cf. irara-, frvLdrw. 
frvui^ru- (from y |/-«- + 1//*«-) : adj. *of wounding msLce'. - irvLcfraoi 

gen. sg. m. Vs. 57-3* , Nar. his hi^sSiJlsira'. 
ilaita- (from Yt^^'* l^'')' ^J- (0 *«iWng, princely ; (2) «shinin|^\ — 

Ys. 26.3 (Phi. here tttdi, Nar. svamin-); Yt. 14. f 7 
[Phi. Hi; New P. M] 
kiapra- (from Y^'' W'Y **>• "• '^^^^ power, Kingdom '.—Cf. next 

word, and ^fapri-f HamB^^iaprti't huJ^japra^, 

[Skt. k/atrd',' Old P. iia/>^a-; Phi. iatdr; N^w P. lakar] 
fiapra- va'rya' (from -j/» + »♦): $b. n. nomen propr. 'Khshathra Vairya* 

(lit.* *wisKcd-for Kingdom'), one of the Amesha Spentas. See 

(ir. Introd. p. xxvi § 35. — If^aprim va^rlm Ys, 57.24. 
[Phi. MtvaXro; New P. /iirlt'tfr] 
iiapn^ (from iiapra-)* sb. m. 'miatraaa, Wife, female '.— Yt. 5.5; 

Yt. 14.12 (bis). 
kiaprya- (from |/ie»>r«-): adj. 'kingly '.—il«*iwd ^apryp (cf. Skt. 4omd^ 

rija) Ys. JJ7.19. — [Skt. kfatriya-l 
ti^'p'» ii^P^^'- ^^' ^- * night •.—-J/ii/^ gen. sg. Ys. 57.31; fiapamm 

ace. sg. Yt. 14.13; ifa/nasca ace. pi; Ys, 57-17- 

[Skt. kfap-; Old P. ismpan-; Phi. lap; New P. iak} 



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Vf/^-** f/^*-' Tb; d. f, a ^rtdft, 1m$ miijestic, be splendid'.— Cf: ift^Q^ 

etc. — [Skt. ikfi-; Phi. Uyastan; New P. Uyiitan\ 
Yilud-: rb. cl» x «flow'.— Cf. ^wiftra-. 

[Skt. ife/«flr.; Phi. i^j/w; Neiir P. i^x/^u] 
ifudro' (from YHud-)'. sb. n. < semen, seed*. — ^udr& sec. p!» f. xi, 

(6:r. § 23») Vt, S-^^S — [S>l^t. k^udrd-^; Phi. toiir] 
fjfiva'f (from |/w/, <7r. § 366): nam. adj. • sixth '.r-YL 14.1.7. 

[PhU JaJfem; New P. /<r/«^«i] 
liinaopra- (from ij/«x^- q^Y*)' ^^' ^ 'pjropitisttoin'. Frequent in the 
formula yatttiiUa. vahmaUa ^acprSicdt ffusasiayaica 'for the 
worship, prsise/ etc. Ys. 57.6,8-— {Cf. .Skt. A^Sfra-] 
2ti/$a0/ra' (prob. best from tSfUi', Snu-, cf. Gr. §§ 164, 77 N. 3, 188): 

«b. n. 'knee*.— 3ce hufinao/ra-. 
iinaoma- (from Yi$ftu^, cf. Crr. § 808): sb. n. 'joy .-^-^inaoma instr. 

sg. Vd. 3.23.^— [Phi. InO/n] 
Yii'*^'* v^- '^^^ * 'rejoice, be pleased '.—Csus. ^propitiate'.— ^//tiT- 
vayeUt. cans. pres. iodic, act. 3 sg. {Gr. § 685 e) Vd. 3.23. 
[Cf. SkL kfttu-; Phi. inSytian, }fi4y7nUan (caus.)] 
iivah- num. (6V. § 366) *six*.— Cf. iltvar-. 
[Skt. /4^; Phi. Jifi/ New P. M] 



Av. C* ^. 

gaipd" (from y^f/-, //-); sb. 1 (i) •being, livinff creature'; (2) 'world' 
(i.e. 'all that lives'; Qtop/tu-). — vispayA gaifaya 'of aU the 
world' Ys. 57.15; e.sp. w. astvattt- (q. v*) 'material world, Uving 
beiogSi mankind' Ys. 57-24 • Yt. 14.1,- Vd, 3.23; Vd. 6.44,47,49; 
aiahe gaipa (see ajfa-) Ys. 57.15. 

[Cf. Old P. gaipa; Phi. gihan; New P. ^ihan, gfhdn, jMn] 

gaipu- (i»ame as ga?su' 'hairy'): adj. *shMf^^y'.—Ml/raie gaipHu} gen. 
«g. m. Yt. 14. 1 1. — [Cf. Phi. gis: New R ^w, ^^xtfj 

gaif^.frttdana^ (from gaipd'-^fr^-f Or, § 866): adj. 'helping man- 
kind' (lit. 'furthering living beings'). — Yt. 5.1. 

gatf', gava-, gdu-: sb. m. f. (dcln. Gr. § 278) (i) *beef, bull, cow'; 
(2) *meat' (beef); (3) 'milk'.-Ys. ii.i,7; Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5,7. 
— SSul ^udaphd gen. ig. Ys. 26.4 note. 
[Skt. g^; Phi. g0, gov; New P. gSv] 

gao»4L»: sb. mV (i) 'color'; (2) 'exuberant appearanee*. — Vd. 3.25, 
Phi. Vers, here^hos strth 'fullness, repletion*. 
[Phi. gUih ganah; New P. gunah] 

gaoma^ {ixom gao^f g^-)' sb. m. 'meat, milk'.— Cf. gaomava^t-. 



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66 gaomavaiit'' — cafw&r* 

gaomavani' ((rom gopma-): adj. ' contistinfl^ of meat, or milk'. — 

Yt. 5.S (utopfOlfyd). 
gaoia^ (from yjwj^): sb. m. 'oar*. — Cf. %a^rugaoia', taranyogaoiO', 

[Skt ghofa-; Old P. gauia-: Phi. gdjf;.^ew P. ^i?i] 
l/'gam", Jam-, see under "Yjam-, 

gaya^ (from V"^-, >/-): sb. m. 'life'.— See also under mar^ian-,-^ 
Ys, 2645,10 (Gayomart). — [Skt. ^^'a-/ Phi. jdn; New P. ^4if] 
gar»wa» (from y^<irw-): sb. m. 'womb*. — Yt. 5.2,5. 
[Skt. g&rbha-: Phi. ^tf/r, ^fl^r] 

ygarw-: vb. cl. 9, xo 'teiae, grasp*. \-hs *upUft'. h^ 'seize 

upon \-—g9r»WHqn pres. subj. act. 3 pL (cl. 9, Gr* § 588) Yt. 57.25 ; 
Hgd»rv0yiiU pres. indtc. mid. 3 sg. (cl. x6) Ys. 57.29. 

[Skt. grabh-: Old P. garb; Phi. graftan; New P. girt/tan] 
yigd-: vb. cL % *go\ — [Skt. gS-; New P. ^ddan] 
Yaga-: vb. cl. 4 *8ing, chant*.— Cf. ^/J-. — [Skt. gd-] 
gdu-, see under gao-, gov-. 

gUtU' (from yi^J): sb. m. (i) 'place'; (2) *6xv9n\'-giUuiva loc. pi. 
Yd. 6.45.— Cf. also s(ar»ta.gaiU'. 

[Skt. gata-; Old P. gnpu^; Phi. ^'Jy/ New P. gOM] 
gaps- (from y2^(^-): sb. f. *hymni psalm'. £sp. the five Gathas, 
see Gr. Inlrod. p. xvii § 13 b. — Ys. 57.8. 
[Skt. gdlha-; Phi. gas\ 
Ys^'* y "» see under Y^P'* 
y^i//-; vb. cl. I *hear*.-~Cf. ga^ia-, sasnd.gai', 

[Skt. ghuf^; Phi. nvdfjUiaif; New P. nyd^idan] 
yij^^r'w-, see under y^arw-. 

yV''<»»'--' vb. *be 9X4pry\-^graftiah€ pass, ptcpl. gen. sg. (6^r. § 711,5) 
Yt 14.15. 

Av. t, ^. 

y^iar-;- vb. cl. i, xo 'flow, stream'. \-vi 'overflow'. — vijiara^ 

yfintfm pres. ptcpl. Yt. 5.132. — Cf. also j/^i^ar-, apajUra-, 
[Skt. kfar-] 

Av. f r. 

-ra.* end. conj. *and' (Lat. ^que). — ra . . . f<» 'both — and' Ys. xi.I; 
Ys. 57«i7. As in Skt. sometimes apparently 'even*, cf. bar*- 
ziltalfifaca Yd. 6.45.-— Observe -ca (GAv.) Yt. 5.9; Yt. X4.5. 
[Skt, "ca; Old P. -ca; Phi. -tf, -/V] 
capwar-: num. ((?r. § 372) 'four'. — Yt. 57.27. — Cf. also tnWya', 
[Skt. catvdr-; Phi. eah&r, cih&r; New P. rtf//Jr, rJr] 



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cafufar»aat€^ — jam" 6/ 

eafwarKsuia- (from r» + j«): sb. n. num. (<7r. § 366) *forty*.— Yt. 5.4. 

[New P. cikil] 
yVar-: vb. cl. I 'move, go*. {-/ra 'go forth, com e'.»^/rararS*ii 

pres. subj. act. 3sg. Ys. 57.24. — [Skt. ear*; New P. tarTda/t] 
car an a- (from "jAi/ttfr-): sb. n. < instrument '. — Cf. sraoidxarana'. 

[Skt kdra^a-: cf. New P. eSrah-] 
carAhi-: sb. f. • maiden '.— -Yd. 3.24.— ^[Phl. carSiOk] 
car^tar- (from Yikar*, Gr. % 76 N.): sb. m. «mmter\-- Cf. /ra/p.* 

rtfr'/or-*— [Skt kdrtar-] 
Yzci-: vb. cL 3 (6?r. § 551) ••ton**.— Cf. «>l-. — [Skt. W-] 
cifd» (from y 2 <»'<): sb. f. 'atonement, penalty'. — kd ki asti cifa {Gr. 

§ 1020 N., expl.) Yd. 6.47. 
-f//.* cncl. particle (x) emphatici 'even, indeed'; (2) generalizing, y^i^t^H 

Ys. 57.29: kasd^a Yt. 5.4.— [Skt. -eid; Old P. -«>] 
|/^f//-, (kil-):^ vb. d. 7 ((7r. § 555) « announce '.—Cf. $kaiia*. 



Av. i;; >. 

>«»//- (from yy<r«-): sb. f. ' smiting *.^Cf. paULjaUi-, — [Skt, haU-^ 

jajftva, see under yj^^'' 

jajmalifma^ {Uota jajmvah", see yyflw-): superl. adj. /most prompt*. 

— Ys. 57.4. — [Cf. Skt ^ami/t/ia-] 
YJati^: vb. cl. 4 'askt pray, demand V—ya^ifyM/ pres. indie, act. 2 sg . 

(w. two ace, Gr, § 930) Ys, 11. 2; ja*dya^t/ii pres. ptcpl. act 

dat. 8g. m. («-dcln. Gr* § 297) Yt S*i32- 

[Cf. Skt ^ad-; = Old P. jad; New P. sayitan (Horn)] 
YJ^^'» g^^'- v^* cl- * '•trikc, smite, slay*. \-ni *strikc down'. 

^^ja*i§H pres. indie, act 3»g. Ys. 57.10; nijm pres. indie, mid. 

3sg. (Gr. § 525) Ys. 57-29; jan&ni pres. subj. act i sg. {Gr, 

§ 521) Yd. 19.5; jajnvm pf. ptcpl. act Ys. 57.10.--Cf. itiww^r*- 

d9.jau', kak9r*^.jan"> 

[Skt. han-; Old P. yVm-/ Phi. sa/ii»/ New P. %adan\ 
jantar' (from V/0»-)- '^* ™* 'smiter' nom. sg. Ys. 57.15. 

[Skt. kantdr-; Old P. jatar-; Phi. ffa/^r] 
Yj^i^^'* gam', jas-: vb. cl. 2, x (inchoat.) * go, come '.-— + ava 'come 

down'. +1I 'come hither'. -i-pa'H 'come back, come 

to', -^/ra *go forth', -f vJ 'go apart, distribute'.-— 

djamyif aor. opt. 3 sg. Ys. 57.3 ; paULjasaUi pres. indie, act. 

3sg. (inchoat Gr, §§ 697-8) Ys. 57* 12; Sjasai pres. indie, act. 

Yt X4.i seq.; avajasa pres, imperat act 2sg. Yt 5.132; yhjasaUi 

pres. subj. act. 3 sg. Yt. 5.4; frajasqn (frajasSl) bar9ntfm pres. 



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68 >«f /tfrjr- 

subj. act. (Gr, § 915- 4 exmpl.) Vd. 6.47; pmiti.jasqn prei. suhj. 
3 pi- Vt. 5.131; jajMvah' pf. ptcpl. act. a:> adj. in juj/nuiUma-, 
jiikt. ^tf«f-, jgach-; CMd P. ^J«-, jam-; cf. Phi. (gjmatan, 
d-mttian; New P. H-madart] 
\ j as* ^mchoai.), see under Yjam-, 
Y2ji': vb. 'live*.— Cf. ^^rtfe^-, y/ra-.— [Cf. Skt. 2y7-]. 
>/ rif - (fr. V 2>-) - ad> 'lively, quick*.— .{SktyirJ-/ cf. New P. zirak (Horn)] 
jirs.sara^ (from /• -f j«») : adj. • moving the head quickly ' ( ?). — Vt. 14, 1 2 

(Tradition has ' intelligent ', cf. Ne'w P. s7/'tf^, jMse fita \ 
'Yjiv: vb. cl. z * live ',— y^tfi|?/f/4« ((//'. § 68 N. 2) pres. ptcpl. act., gen. pi. 
nu Ys. a6.6. — .[Skt.yiv-; Old P.y/t*-; Phi. zitmstani New P. sfjt/tfuj 
'Yjtt't see under I'^yVv-. 

Av. >» /. 

/tf- (ha-, hS', ta»): dem. proc. (dcln. Gr, § 409) *this , — ^Ys. 11.5; 
Ys. 57.3, '^,29; Vt. 5.9»U2; Yt. X4.5i Vd. 3-24i29. 
[Skt. /tf- C>a-, JJ-, /J-)] 
tail a- (cf. Skt. V^/(/-)' s^- "*• * sharpness, edge*. — Cf. brdi^U.taila-, 

[Cf. Skt//4A»i-l 
ta^rvay eni , see under y'/tf^-j.'-. 
|A/a>-, 8e3 under Yiac-, 
tat ma- (from y V//r-) : adj. * bald, sturdy %— Ys. %^. 3 ;. Ys. 57- ' i » 33 ; 

Yi, 14.15. — [Old ^- '^^^w^/ (J*W. ^''i***) New P. toAaw] 
Yiac', lak-, taj%(^: Tb. cl, i *run, rush*. — -f/ra 'tun along, 
i\o\i^.^"'/rSiuca*ii, ^Jf$ti pre*, ludic. act. Yt. 3. 3i4,"Cf. also 
aUmJaiiHa'', ia^ma-, iarici^ta^, 

[.Skt. iitk^, tac", iaAk'i Phi. taiiafi; New P. f^i/an\ 
tanumil^ra^ (from (anu- -\' tn^) \ adj. *the word incarnate' (i. e. per- 

sonifi cation of the Manthra). - Ys. 57.33. 
/«#ii?-.- sb f. (ddn. Gr. § 271) *body'.— Vs. 57.26; Va. 6.44. 

[Skt. lantf-i ianu-; Phi. ianUi New P. tan\ 
ytafic-*, see mider Iz/ff^-. 
YlaiitTista- (from J/^/irc-, ianc-)\ supcrl. adj. {Or. § 3^5 X 2) <mo6t 

sturdy . — Yd. 11,7; Ysi 57.13, Nar. hm; drikatuiua-. 
tarasca (inntr. advl. Cr. § 207): prep. w. ace. *across^ past'. -r-Vd. 3.29. 

[Skt. itraicii'] 
Y^orp^: vb. cl. 4 'steal*. — lar'Jyat pres. (scdryj subj. act. 3sg. Ys. 11. 5. 
[Skt. ^r/- (in trp.u-)\ Pld. iarfiinitan; cf. New P. tar/and, 
lawb ' He. deceit ' ] 
|/"/<?r»»: vb. cl. lo * overcome'. — Uvhrvay^m pits. subj. act i.sg. Yt. 14.4. 
[Skt. iurv^ iurv-; Phi. tarvimtan] 



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Ytars' (from fraM--, Gr, § 69S N.): ?b» inchoat. *Skte\^tar-^ia pas^. 
ptepl. Vs. 57.itJ (bis). 

[Cf. Skt. />-«*-; Old P. //7w-/ Phi. lanttati; New P. tdtrsidan] 

y/ « /- : vb. d. » * hew, sbaps \ h hqni 'construct \—hqnUalti pres. 

indie, act. 3 sg. Ys^57.to. — Cf. also kiitaha** 
• [Skt. tak^: Old P. #tf^/./ Phi. ta^mn] 
taUa^ (from |/'te/-): sb. d. *cup', — the sacred chalice into which the 
haoma was poured.-^/aiV^' iostr. %%, Vd« 19.9. 
[Phi. W//; New P. ia}i\ 
tA^tH-: sb* IB, *tWef*— Ys. xi.3.-i-[Skt. tay/f, c/. t/J^% ^.r^if- ^^eal'J 
(ijra-t tiii (in corapds.), cf. Skt. Yiij-- adj. 'sharp*. — Cf. tili,asara', 

[€X Skt. Hjftita; Phi. ^*/ New P. /iVj 
iiii^f see under ti^ra-^ 

tiiLasnra- {see /Hi -h a^) i «*> 'havinif sharp btiatlesi (?)*.-- Yt. 14.15. 
tiiLc/qsira (see tHi^d*)x adj. * shArp-tttsked '. — VI. X4-15. 
JT/**; vb. d. I *bc able'. — /tfi^^jr pres. (scdry.) sabj. act 3 pi. (Cr. § 486) 

Vd. 6.51. — (Skt. /«-/ PhL hidan; New P. imv&n] 
1 1 airy a- (for ^c^tahya-, cf. H-^taWya- from ra^toar')'. nqm. adj. « fourth*. 
-Yl. 14,11 ; /fl^7/« (<?r, § 934) Vd. 3.23. 

[Skt. iurya-; c{. Pht. caJtSram; Near P. fnkSrmm] 
i tuirya^: adj. 'Turanian', — ^bclunging to the land hostile to Iran.— 
tnWim {Gr. § 63) Vt. 11.7. — [Phi. (Hr, tnr&n; New P. itlrun\ 
tatuc-: ib. i. 'car|^, cloth (?)\—/7?/»^/Pdr loc. pi. Vd. 6.51, see note. 

|Cf. New P. tufnk 'cunain, veil 'J 
mm: pron. 2pers. (del. Gr. § 390) *thou'.- Ys. 11. i, 7; Ys. 57.26; Vd.3.29; 

Vd. X9.6* — [Skt. indm: Old P. twam; Phl.:^jil/ New P. /iJ] 
itmak^ (cf. Skti y/fftnm): sb. n. 'darkneaa, Hell'. —^0y<r«>b' gen. sg. 
. {Or, § 982) Ys. J7.18.— [Skt. idm-as; Phh Ai>yf/ cf. New P. /<i/w] 
ti, see under /a- .ibove. 
Ufrya^ (cf. Skt Vf/tf/ia^) : adj. 'dark'.-Yt 14.13. 

[Of, Skt idmt^as' eke; Phi. fSr, (»rtk; New P. idr] 

YfiatfJ-: vb. ct xo 'draw, drive^ rcfai'.~-Cr. mfin^iar^. 

Pwa^i^'i sb. ro. <lright'.-Ys. 57.18. 

Yfi'sm^i^': vb. d. t *work, be active, be stirrinc^, make haste'. 

[Skt, tvakf-; Phi. itl^iJian] - 
pwa\ia' (from j^'^^wtfl/-) : adj. actiye, bu»y\ — fmaij^lf^m stiperl. 
Vs. 57.13. 

[Cf. Skt. ivdkfas' 'activity';. =s: Phi. tul^dk: New P. ta\iia\ 



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ro fwaf" — daindMsa* 

\'pwar': vb. 'haiten*.— Cf. /wtfr/-, /wf4/tf-. — [Skt. tvar-^ 

Y^wars' (from ypwar-, Gr. § 698): vb. inchoat. (i) 'cut, create*; 

(2) 'decide, judje'.— -+//•<? *cut off. ypaUi *to shoe' 

(of horses).>-^^;''/a/J pres. iodic, act. 3du. ¥5.57.2; frSf>w9r»sd 

pret. (injunct.) act. 2 sg. Ys. 11.7; pa^H^arhmvhd pass, ptcpl. 

nom. pi. Ys. 57.27. — Cf. ^lno' pwor^iiar; 
PwSb fwqm^ see under tlim, Gr. g 390. 
fwMia* (from |/"/tt'<ir-, Gr, § 163): * quick*.— pwO^^m ace. sg. n. advl. 

(^r. g 934) Ys. 11.7. — [Skt. i^r/dm] 
pwdr*itar' (from pwars-, Cr. g 39 cxpl.): sb. m. < judge' (i.e. who 

decides). — Y&. 57.2 note. 
Prah-: vb. *fe«r, be terrified'.— See "l/"/tfrx-. — [Skt. tras-] 
Pri-: num. (dcln. Gr, §371) 'three '.—/rJ)'*? nom. pi. m. Vs. ix.l. 

[Skt. tri-; Phi. St: New P. sih\ ' 
Pritya^ (from //"/-): num. adj. * ^SDXc6.\—pnty5 (Gr, § 997) Yt, 14.9; 

apriam (6?r. g 375) Ys. 57.31.— [Skt. trtiya- ; Old P. j^itiya-] 
priiva- (from /W-, G^r. g 376 N., 827):. sb. m. *a third'.— Ys. 11. 7. 

[Phi. srllaialc] 
Prqf-: vb. *to aatiafy *.— /r^/'<fJ pass, ptcpl. nom. sg. m. {Gr, § 77 N. 3) 

Ys. 57.14. — [Cf. ^kt. trp' Ormp-dti). 
pryaiiii' (from pri- ^ ya.Jti-, Gr. § 68a): sb. f. 'three stalks' (of 

haoma) Gr, g 891. — Ys. 57.6 note. 



Av. J d, 

da^fhu', dahyu- (from |f^</«iirA-, dah-^x sb. f. (dcln. Gr. g 270) 
'coontry, nation', — the largest division in the four-fold con- 
stitution of the Iranian state, y\i.\\) nmUna', (2) w-, (3) stf«//r^« 
(4) i/tf^vtf-.— Ys, 57.14; Yt. 5.6; Yd. 3.27. 

[Cf. Skt ddsyu; Old P. dahyu-; Phi. dahyn, dih; New P. dih\ 

da*ighu.pa*ti' (from ^« + 2 /•) : sb. m. ' lord (^ the nation, governor '• 
—Yd. 19.6. — [Phi. daAyapai] 

da^fhu.fr&dana' (from d'^-^-fr*): adj. 'increasing the countfy^ — 
Yt5.i. 

dainS' (from y</i-): sb. f. 'conscience, Religion*. The ^<r/ffJ (New P. 
<^x}) is an integral element in the spiritual constitution of man, 
by the light of which be discerns right and wrong ;^ hence 
the divine insight^ religion. — ^Ys. 26.4,6; Ys. 57.24 (bis); 
Yd. 19.6,7. — [Phi. din, din; New P. din\ 

dains.disa- (from daina- -{-ydis-, Gr. g866): sb. m. 'teacher of the 
religion*. — Ys, 57.24. 



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daman datti" 



71 



da f man- (from Y*^')' sb. n. *eyc*. — Cf. smarfnd.daiman','-^[Sew^, dim] 

daiva^: sb. m. * devil, Demon*. Ksp. plur. *the Daevas', (7r. Introd. 

p. xxvU § 41. Fem.ya^vf-.— ad j. ' deviUth \— Ys. 57:i7ii8 (bis), 

3i.3a.33; Yt. 14-*;' dait/^y» gen. sg. f. adj. {Gr. §§ 68 N. 3, 

• 257) Ys. 57.15- 

[0pp. Skt. ddvd- (*god, divine'); = PW. diu ('demon'); 
New P. div, div (* demon')] 
daivd,ddta' (from daiua"\' i data-) : adj. * created by the Demons'. 

—Ys. 57.25 ; Yd. 19.5 (bis). 
daoiatara*: adj. 'western, occidental*. — Ys. 57.29 (loc. sg.)^ 

[Cf. Skh ddfd' 'evening'; Phi. ddlastar; cf. New P. doK] 
Yda»h', dah*: vb. 'be mighty, be wise' (Pischel). — Cf. davhak-, 

//<iA;stfir-. •— [Skt. dqs*, das-"] 
dap hah' (from ydavk-, dah-): sb. n. ' mastery '.—Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5. 

[Skt. dqsas'] 
daP't «ee under y^/J-. 
dafujalt see under daduah-. 

dadqsu- (redupi. from Y*^^'* ^^')' ^^}- 'biting*. — Yt 14. 1 1. 
dadvah' (pf. ptcpl. from Y^^'» ^^* § 34^)^ *b. m. 'creator, Maker*. 

---dopuial abl. sg. {Gr. § 86) Yt 5.7. 
Yd a r - : vb. c1. I , xo * hold, keep '. — -{- av * a p p 1 y *. — ddrayehi (cl. 10) 
pres. indie, act 2 sg. 'hold back, keep from* Ys. n.3; ova ... 
dSrayadwfm (cl. lo) imperat mid. 2 pi. Vsp. 15. 1. — Cf. also drva-, 
[Skt dhar-; Old P. dar-; Phi. d&Itan; New P. dOstan] 
dar'ja- (from Y^t'^j')'' ^^y 'long, continual'.— Yd. 3.24 (6'r.§ 977 expl.). 
[Skt. dlrgka- (Gr. § 48) ; Old P: darga- ; Phi. dir; New P. dir] 
Ydars-: vb. cl. i 'see, look*. — Cf. frad^r'sra-, kvar^dar^sya-, 

[Skt. dari"] 
Ydari-: vb. cl. 5 *be bold, be hardy*.— Cf. darfi-, darfita-. 

[Skt dharf-: Old P. darl-] 
darii' (from yV<fr/-): adj. 'bold, hardy*. — darfySiS (observe >!) gen. 

sg. m. {Gr, § 254) Yt 14.2. —[Cf. Skt didAr/i-] 
dariita- (from Ydarl-^ pass, ptcpl. Gr. §§ 712, 786 N. i): adj. *daring*. 
— Ys. 57. 11.-^ [Skt dhrfitd-; cf. New ^. duruit (Horn)] 

Yd art- (cf. ■j/'</rdr/- below): vb. cl. 10 'hold, fasten*. [-ni 'fasten 

down, se cur t'.'-^nldarnayfn pret (injunct) act 3 pi. Yd. 6.46; 
nidarnayOhiti pres. subj. act 3 pi. Yd. 6.47. — [Skt. dark-] 
das a-: num. adj. (Gr. § 366) 'ten*. — Cf. pa^a.da5ah-, 

[Skt ddia-; PhL dak, dahum; New P. dah\ 
dasii' (from j/"*/*-): sb. n. 'paying*. — daste dat sg. as infin. (^''. § 254 
Dat.) Ysp. 15. 1 note. 



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92 daiiua ddkfuma^ 

daiima*: adj. *tiffiilt\-^daii0a biivo h4vOymca *vUh the Hght arm and 
the left' Vd. 3.25 note. ^[Skt ttdk^ipa-; V\A. <iaiin] 

dckMka": <b. m. somn ki&d of a serpent, Esp. ali dakdka ^Ki\\\ 
Dabalui, the dragon'. — In Vs. ii.*6 dak&kAca {Gr. § 19) denotes 
fiendish creatures. » 

dakmu' (ffom Y^^^^'* dak'): (j) sh. m. 'mastef (a Dastur); — (2) adj. 
<pioiis\ — [Cf. Skt. dasmA-: Fhl. dahm\ 

dakmi^kir^ia- (from d' -{- Jt^r^/at) : adj. 'begotten of pious parents' 
(see dahma-) Ys. 26.9.— -[PhL dakmUnrkmrt] 

da^yu', mst Mnia dmfpku-, 

Ydi; da^p^: vb. cl. 3 {Gr. § 541 aeq.) 'give, put, create, make*.— 
4'tf/iev *plaee around'. — ^u% *«levat^, preserve'.— 
-h/rtf 'prefer, gi vc *. — +/a 'deposit*. -^^ 4-»' 'erect* 
(ahouse)*— ^fl'tf^^//' pres. indie, act. 3 sg. Yt. 5.2; da^dihm prist, 
indlc. act. 3 du. {Cr, § 543) Ys» 57.17; da^af pret. indie act. 
3sg. (Gr, § 553) Ys. 11. 5; Vd. 1^.9 -. /rdda/^tn (Gr. g 553) 
Vd. 19.9 ; tiidapdma pres. subj. act. I pL Yd. 6.44,49 ; rndd^fia 
pres. »abj. ifeid. 3 .sg. ((7a § 546) Vd. 6.51; (AzyA aor. opt. act. 
2.sg. ((7r. 5 634) Ya. 57.26; vid&tfm pass, ptcpl. Ys* 57.21.^ — 
Cf. a^widdtM', uzddna-* 

{Skt. dS'^ dkA' (Gr, § 83); Old K V^-; Wtl. #^d/«uf/ NeiH' P. 

daOya^ {homidSta-, Gr, § 852): adj. < lawful, ri^\—dififyanqm gen. 

pi. n, Vsp. 15.1; tO^im painty acx:, sg< n. Yt.5.2. 
iddta^ (Tram ^Vif-): pasa. ptcpl. aa adj. 'created, alttabUshed*.— Cf, 

ahttra^Siiia-, mOMde'^f daiuo^. 
zddia- {itom, preceding): sb. m. 'law, ordinance V~Yt. X4.5. 

lOld P. Zd&ta-; Phl.d'J/; New P. dad\ 
datar- (iiom ^«/J-): sb. m. (dcln. Gr, § 322) 'maker, Creator '.--Yt. 14. 1 ; 
Vd. 3.23 ; Vd. 6.44 seq. 

[Skt. dhaUr-; Phi. dStSn ^t^ P. dMit] 
ddfri' (from ddtarr)\ sb. f. 'giver^ benefactress' — jnidyantdi dapril 
gygft^m *she that grants a favor to the one that asks' Yt. 5.132. 
[Skt. ddiri'] 
dSmah- (from yda-)\ sb. n. (dcln. Gr. § 308) *creatu^, cfeatlon ' (col- 
lective). —Ya. 57.2 (bis, Gr, § 308 eapl.),t6,i7»3o. 
[Skt. dkdffUM-; Phi. dam] 
ddh'i sb. f. 'wiadom*, — in duiddfi-, huddk, aad according to Phi. Vers. 

maiddk^,^\Q^, Skt. dhi-\ 
ddfiyvm^^{itbv(idahyu>', (^r. §825d); adj. 'bekmging to the coimtiy, 
national'.— Ys. 26.1. 



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i/i draottah" 



73 



d'l-: end. pton, 3rd. pers. {Gr, § 396) *h«, Jt\— Vd. ^^^^\Gr.\ I02JN.); 

Vd. 0.45.— [Old P. di-^Y 
ydis^: vb. cL 4, if < point, show^ teach*.— Cf. <*i^#i^.rf/.ffl-.— [Skt. dii-] 
ydl^, did*: vb. cl. a, 3 *•«€, look*. |-w 'look aroiind'.--z^^<K9 

(C^r. § 68 N. 2 expl) pC act. ptcpl. nom. «g. Yt. 14.13.— Cf. 

a)i»o daiman^ ddi^a-^, 

[Cf. Skt ^»f-, flT</Ai-; OW. P. dl-; PM, <*/Vri»; N<?w P. ifidan] 
d1' (fr. y/rfr*): sb. t 'thoughti devotion \— Sec under J«#r^»i«-.— [Skt. dhU] 
Ydm*: vb. el. i * apeak (of evil beini^), ahout •. — + /«'// 'vociferate 

in* respoase'.— •/(/'Vi ... adavata pret. indie, mid. 3 sg. 

Vd. X9.6, 8. i-* [Phi. daimstan} 
dmi*, dui* (Gr, § 753 N. 2): inseparable prefix 'evil, bad*.— Cf. duS^ 

mr^; PecuUar is d3ui.sru9ak' (q. v.). 

[Skt. «/«^/«/ Old P. HuS^: Phi. <^*J^/ New P. du^h] 
duima^nyw (from dtt}-^m*)\ adj. 'evil-minded'.— sb. m. *foc'.-^ 

Ys. 57-26.--* [Phi. daStnan; New P. dulnian\ 
dtii*, $ee under ^cri^. 
duhdiiman (from dui-^-d*)'^ ad> * ev^il*areatm|r* maleficent \-«^<^l.<^2i'»0 

nom. sg. m. (a^cin.f Gr, g 234 b) Vd 19.6,3. 
</«l4/4^- (froro^«tf/-f </d^ q.v.): adj. <e<vil-thtnkifi|:r malignant '.—^^i^Ji 

nom. sg. m. Vs. 57.25; ^/^li/a voc. sg. .m. Vd. 19.5,9. 

[Skt.«/*^#-,- Phi. dttid, duldnndk; New P. </iv«^^, </»i</ Mhief '] 
dulvarlfm- (from rf^r/Hrfo): adj. 'ill-done*. — sb. n. •evil deed*. — 

Vsp. 15. 1. — [Phi d9Uhuvarit\ 
d^ra-: adj. 'iBx\^dardi {Gr, § 731,4) Ys. 57-'4; 'Yt. 5.3; du're ,,aiUk$ 

*far from him* Vt. 14.13.— Cf. duraisaka-. 

[Skt. dUrd-; Old P. diira-; Phi. Vtfr; New P. diir\ 
daraistika- (from dtlra-, loc, Gr, g 877 d -f J«2i^(T-) : sb. n. ' £tf •reaching. 

glance*.— Yt. 14.13. 
daraafa-: adj. 'holding death afar' (so PhL tradilioo).— A^/v^ ^<i/'^i' 

nom. sg. m. Ys. 11.3, — [Cf. Skt. darJfa-; = Phi. daroJ] 
d^t/I.sravaA" (from dus \- sruvah-, Gr, § 60): adj. 'ill-famed*. — sb. n. 

'slander*. — dSuhsr«vat hacimno 'attended by slanders* Ys. 11.1,3. 
ddipra- (from V^<^'-): sb. n. *eye\— Ys. 11. 4. — Cf.^ vfr^zi.doipra-, spith, 

ttffW«. — [Phi. d^lmr] 
dqma, see \xnAex ddmatt'^ 

yfdqs'f das-: vb. 'bite*. — Cf. dadqsu-, rfi|j//-tf-. — [Skt. f/<?/-, das-\ 
dqsira- (from Ydqr-, d^"): sb. n. 'tusk' (of boar).— Cf. iUi.dqstra-. 
draonak-: ab. n. ♦offering, por&onV- Later the darHii a small flat cake 

used, Hke the Hebrew shew-bread. in the oblation. — Vs. iz.4,5,7, 
[Cf. Skt. drdvi^jun-,* Hil. dar4iit;'K€V P. darutt] 



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jr A draomaH" — ikaila- 

draoman* (from Y^*^' ^I'^'O- *^- "• '••winlt*. — Ys. 57.25. 
"yfdraj't (drag-): vb. cl. z 'hold*. — draiimno pres. ptcpl. mid. (Gr, 
§ 177) Y». 57.31.— Cf. dar^ja- and |/*<for*-. — [Cf. Skt* dark-] 
dra/ia^: sb. m. 'spear, bmnner' (attached to spear).— Ys. 57.25. 

[Skt. drapsd-; Phi. drafi; Nci»r ^. dira/f] 
driju^: adj. *poo»\ — drijaoica dflvy^sca gen. sg. m, f. (<7r. g 362,2) 

Ys. 57.10. — [Phi. dargni; New P. darvU] 
drivy^sca, see under driju-. 
"Ydr u - ; vb. cl. I * rush '. — Caus. 'make onslaughts '. — drSvaya^ caus. 

subj. act 3sg. (w. ace.) Ys. 57.25. — [Skt. dru-] 
dru-: sb. n. (i) *wood', (2) 'msec' (wooden club).— Cf. frvfJru". 

[Skt. drii'] 
Ydruj-: vb. cl. 6 * deceive, lie* (esp. hurt by deceit). — Cf. dru/-, drvant', 

[Skt. druh-; Old P. duruj, Vhl drUjItan] 
dr u j' {itom y^</rtf/'-): sb. f. 'fiend, Falsehood*, — lie and corruption per- 
sonified.— Ys. 57.15. — [Skt. druk-; Phi. draj] 
drva* (from Ydar-)\ adj. 'firm, sound*.— Cf. </rr<//«f/-i-^[Skt. dhruvA'\ 
drvaiai' (from drva-, Gr. § 842): sb. f. 'soundness*. — Ys. 57.26. 
drvant' (from rfr«/-, Gr, § 31 cxpl.): adj. (dcln. Gr, § 291) 'wicked, 
fiendish*. *->sb. m. 'fiend, (pi.) the wicked* (6V. Introd. p. xxv 
§ 34).— Ys. 57.25 (bis), 32. 

[Cf. Skt. druhvoH'; Phi* diirvand; New P. darvand] 
dva-: num. ((?r. § 370) 'two*. — duye saHe ace. d«. n. Vd. 6.48. 

[Skt. dvd-: Phi. dU; New P. du^ 
dvaiJtva- (from |/Vw/-): sb. n. 'hatred'. — Cf. vuivadKva'. 
Ydvar-: vb. cl. i 'rush* (of evil beings). — dvar9i§ii pres. indie, act. 

Ys. 57.18. — [Phi. d/wanstfift] 
dvar-, dvara-i .sb. n. 'door*. — Vd. 3.29. 

[Skt. </7'^r-, dvSra-; Old P. duvara-; New P. dar\ 
ydvii' (cf. ibii'): vb. 'hate, be malicious '.—Cf. dvaiitva-, 
[Skt. </frv-/ Phi. diHian] 



Av. (p /. 

ikaiia- (conn. w. y^/7-, ri7- 'announce'): sb. m. 'announcement' (re- 
velation, promulgation of the Religion). — adj. (as subst.) 'pro- 
claiming the religion, promulgator '.—Esp. poiAryo.ffuaid the 
first faithful i. e. the disciples pf Zoroaster who made the first pro- 
paganda, including also himself (Yt. 13.90).— /tfe^r^air^m fitaifa- 
nqm gen. pi. m. Ys. 26.4; dha^rU fkafid 'the Ahurian Revelation' 
Ys. 57.24.—Cf. also ahur$.ikaSJla-.^[V\A, M; New P. i/V] 



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g>ai$ah natdyah" 75 

ibai$ah' (from Yibii-): sb. n. 'hatred, malice \—Yt. 14.4. 

[Skt. dvifiu-; PhL bi^] 
W<^/i- (cf. dvii')'. vb. cl. 4 'hate*. — lbi$yaiitqm pres. ptcpl. act. gen. pK m. 

Ys, 57.26. — [Cf. Skt. dvh-; Phi. hihtan\ 
fhi$vaftt» (from YfiU-): adj. 'hating, malicious'. — ¥1.14.4 (gen. pi.). 



Av. \ n, 

na^: neg. *n-* (in composition). — Cf. nova, 

[Skt. nd; Phi. »-; New P. nS, nah-] 
na^rya* (from nar-): adj. 'manly, human*. — Cf. tta'Tyo^amha-* 

[Skt. ndrya-; cf. Phi. «^r<?;t/ New P. tiird] 

na^ryJ.satfha- (from ««*>^tf- -h-f*) J sb. m. nom. propr. {Gr. § 893) 

*Nairyo8anha', messenger of Ahura Mazda; later Nirydsang^ 

Compare Vedic A^iirJitjju-, name of Agni. — ttairtm savhim Vs. 57.3. 

nag da (cf. na9)\ neg. conj. *not, nor*. — Vs. 11.6. 

naima-: %h,n, 'aide*. — Vd. xg.5 (bis). — Cf. aniara^naina-, upa^ri^, niliara** 

[Cf. Skt. ninta-; Phi. nim, uimak; New P. ium, nfmoA^] 
nabSnnzdiita- ( from nabi- * narcl * -f ttazdUta-) : adj. ' next-of-ltin * 
(nearest relatives). 

[Cf. Skt. nSdk§nidif(ka- nom. propr.; Phi. na^dnazdist] 

Ynam-: vb. cl. x 'bow» bend, flee*. [-fra *flee from'.— /rtf ... 

it^mante pre«, indie, mid. Ys. 57.18; frUndmdUe pres. subj. mid. 
(on «itfi»», cf. Gr, § 478 N. 2) Ys. 57.18. — [Skt. nam-^ 
nar-, nara-i sb. tn. (dcln. t7r. § 332) 'man*. — Ys. 26.6,7,10; Ys. 57.14,34; 
Yt. 5-4: Yt. 14.17; Vd. 3.27 seq.; Yd. 6.44,49. 
[Skt. «<fr-/ Phi. nar-; New P. nar\ 
Inava (from ^tf-f**): ncg^ particle * not '.—Vs. XI.3. — [Cf. Skt. nd vn\ 
znava num. {Gr, § 366) 'nine '.—[Skt ndvo; Phi. nlSv, nuh; New P. nuK\ 
nava,ya\iti- (from 2;itroff+^); sb. m. 'nine stalks' (of Barsom). — 

Ys. 57.6 note. 
yiif«j-; vb. cl. 4 'perish, be ruined*. — Cf. nasu-, 

[Skt inas-; Phi. nasfptUan (caus.); New P. fi&sfdan] 
nasu' (from j/"! *»«/-): sh,,f^i) 'corpse', (2) nom. propr., esp. w. druj 
*theDrajNasii' (corpse-fiend); the spirit of comiption, which 
in the form of a fly takes possession of the dead body. — nasuS 
(nom. as ace, Gi\ § 926) Yd X9.5. 

[Phi. nasal; New P. nisa,\c(. Gk. vix-!>^] 
natdyah', nasdilta-: adj. compar., supcrl. 'nearer, nearest'. — Cf. 
itaMnazdiJfta". 

[Skt nidfyaS', nidiffha-; Phi. nazdik, jtazdisi; New P. luuid] 



c 



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76 nU—^Ui 

nd, sec under nar*, 

nd^dyah' (from ^ndd-)', adj. comptr. *S9^9kKt\-~^il^dy0ifh9m {Gr. § 346) 

y$. 57. »o note 
nd^rf' (from nar-, Gr. § 837): sb. t 'woman, wife*.— Ys. 26.7,8, 10; 

nS^pym geo. 9g. Ys. xx.t. 

[Skt. wrfrf-/ PhL ndlrtk; New P. fitf//| 
Yndd-: vb. 'be needy, be weak'.:— Cf. w<f'V/yj/i-. — [Skt. wrfa5*, /rtf/i-] 
i»i«« see under nf, 
mijm, see under Yjan-* 
ni/ aft ar- ((rom \fporij'\\ sb. m. 'driver' (i. e, he who holds the reins). 

— nipaita noni. «g. Ys. ix.2. 
nipd^ti' (from VA^")* **»• ^- * «afe-kecping '.— Yt. 5.6. 
nii (cf. y) vbl. prefix (<7r. § 749) ♦out, forth'.— (Skt. nis\ 
niiamknr'ii- (from ^ii, «/ 4 !/>*<''••* Or, § 7S4i5)- sb. f. 'i^uardian- 

*bip\— Yt. 5.6 (dAU fig.). 
nijlat/hasti', see under Yha^'- 

nilt^nru^ (from #ri/): adj. * outer *.—Cf. niharajuiima-. 
n tjtiara^ nmima- (from* w -4- »•) : sb. n. * the out:{ide *. — Ys. 57.2 1 (Gr, 

9 73J,4). 
niiha^rvaUit see under \fhar-. 
ni (lii^): vbl. prefix, (^r, § 750) 'down, in, unto'. 

[Ski. ni; Old K w>. Phi. #f/»/ New P. nh] 
fl#-M <!>(-. (from jTiftf/w-): sb. ru * homage '. —Ys. xi.8. 

[iJkt* fidmas-; Phi. namdx, fu%md(: New P. »«2W^»] 
i»#, Mtf > see Qiider tuam^ Gr, § 386. 
»J#7 (cf. na^Y adv. •not'.— Ys. xi.t^ Y«. 57'i7 ct passim. 

[Skt. »A// Old P. naiy: New P. i»#] 
nmdna^ (GAv. d^mdm-. \fdajn-. ' build % cf. Skt. dam43a', Gr. § 185): 
sb. n. ^hoaa^ abode*. — The unit (family) in the four-fold arrange- 
ment of the Iranian state, viz. (t) nmdna", (a) vis-, (3) nat^u; 
(.^)daAyif-,—Ys. 11.6; Ys. 26.7; Vs. 57.10, 1 4 (bis), a 1,34; Yt. 5.6. 
[Old P. tndniya'^; l*hl, mS»: New P. fnun\ 
n many a* (from nrndna-): adj. < belonging: to the house' (having the 
xank of a househt^lder). — Ys. 26.1 (cf. Ys. 23*!,). 



Av. « /. 

ipaUi' (from ]/>itf-): sb. m. *lordV— Cf. a^Jiropahp, l^fpafpya-, 

[Skt. pdti-; Phi paU "pat; New P. ^bad\ 
2paUi: (1) vbl. prefix (Gr. §§ 735, 750) 'towaxds^ againat, back*.— 
(2) prep, 'to, upon, for, with'.— With acc. yai kd paUi *wher- 



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ever indeed' Vd. 3 23;— with ins It. Mmd pahi Yk. 5^3, —with 

dat. f^tne ptt'U Vd. 6.51 ; cf. Vd. 19,6, 7,8,9 r—%vich abl. pa- 

xt?t»tSi paHi bar^smn {Gr, § 966 N, 2) Ys. 57.2 »— with gen. 

hara^pyd pa'ti *upon AlboM* Vs. 57.I9>21; a^talu paHi 'on this 

account' Vd. 6.48;— with. loc. Ys. 57.19, »i, 31 rYt; 5*9 r/**''^^; 

Vd. 6.45.— Cf. also poitijaseflti* pa\Uii&na* etc. 

[Skt. /*•«/« ; Old P. patiy; PhU ^/; New P. piii» pai] 
pau i.J ahi- (from p* 4->'W-) ; sb. f. * smiting •.— Y». 57*26. 
poiti\»r»H' (from ^^// + V^^^~) - ^J* ' opposing, canbative * (cf. pS*» 

fySra-^.^—paiii.frfno gen. sg. m, Yt. 14 15. 
paiiiltSna^ (from /fl'V/ -f- V •^^^•) * ^b. m. 'foot, leg' (Jit * support * ).— 

Cf. hupaittliona-, — fSkt. praiisihiina' ; PJil. pciWdfi] 
pahiitcntO' (from Y^zau'): pass, ptcpl. adj. * welcomed, received' 

(lit. • acknowledged, recognised'). — Ys. 57.14,33. 
paiiyasti' (from paki -f j/^4-, /i- ?) : sb. f. • acquisition, receiving * 

(mentairy). — Vsp. i5;a. 
pa*pimna^t see under \fp£U^* 
pa*pya- (from ipa^ii-): (l) sb. ^. 'l^dahip, pOMCSSioil '.— (2) bulTix of 

possession.— -Cf. haspt^Pya". 
pa.'ri (Gr* §g 73 Si 75o)* (') adv. and vbt. prefix * around '.— (2) prep. 

w. ace. dat. abl. 'from, against '•— WitJi abl. Vs. 57-25 (bis); 

— with d a t. pMri . ^^ . var^iSi 'against doing' Vsp. 15. i. - - 

Cf./4*wffMi-.— .[Skt. ^/<ri; OldP./flri// PhU ^r/ WewP.^rJ 
pairiawkarita-t see under lAAar-. 
pd'rikii'! sb. f *Pairikat Peri\ — a class o( female fairies bewit<;hiag 

and seductive. — Vt. 14.4; Vd* 19.5 note. 
[Phi partk; New P. pert, pari] 
pti*ri^g4- (from V^<f , cf. SM. purdga-): sb. m. <eycls, pariod' (cf. 

:iep(-o5P€). — Cf. following. 
p a iri,ga. vac ah- (from pa'*rugd' -Yvacnk^^ : adj. ' speaking timely words * 

(so rightly Phi. Vers.),— Vs. 57-20 note (6>. § 864 end, -JP-). 
pa^i-iik-a^ta-f see iijider \'h<f.j^. 

pai^rva-: adj. 'before, prior '.•?— [Skt. purvd^l Cr^ § 48; Old P. ^/-//i/^^-] 
pa^rvatil- (from pa^^rva-); sb. i. * priority, mastery \ - Ys. 57.20. 
P^lman-: jbb. 11. * milk \-— Y't. S.2 , 5; 

[Cf. Skt. pdyjfis-t- VloX» p^t; New P. ///w] 
pais ah', passu- (^om V//>r, q. ▼.): sb. a. 'form, figure, beauty'. — 

Cf. vfspe^paisa', //Mr«. -*• [Skt phas^, pcsa-l 
paoirya- (from paurva-, Gr, §§ 62, 853 expl.): •first*.— Ys. 26.2, 3; 

Yt 14.2. 5.— With ikai^a- q. v. Ys. 26.4. 
[Skt, purvyn-y' OW P. paruptya-j 



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78 P^i' --pM^ra. 

'^pat-: vb. cl. 4 *poMe88' (Lat *poiiri\—pa*pimm (Gr, § 63 expl.) pres. 

ptcpl. mid. Ys. 57.20.— [Skt. pat', patyati 'possess'] 
paiar»ta' (from ^paiira- 'wing'): adj. 'winged*. — Ys. 57.28. 

[Cf. Skt. pattriia-] 
pad-: sb. m. *U}Q\\^padu ace. pi. Vsp. 15.1. — Cf. pddti-, 

[Skt. pad-; Old P. pad'] 
pane a: nam. {Gr, § 366) •five'.— Ys. 57.8. 

[Skt pdAca; Phi. pane; New P. panj] 
paii<a,dasah' (from /• + </»): adj. 'of fifteen (years)'. — Yt. 14.17 note, 
panca,yaiUi' (from p^-\-y*): sb. m. *five stalks' (the haoma twigs). 

— Ys. 57.4 note. 
Yipar^: vb. cl. 9 (Gr, § 591) *fiir.— -Cf. pfia-, — [Skt. i par-] 
para-: (i) adv. and vbl. prefix [Gr, g 750) * forth, away'; — (2) prep. 

(G^^ § 735) 'before, from'.—Cf. under Y^**^'' 
[Skt. pdr^; Old P. pard; Phi. par; New P. par] 
pari (cf. para): prep, and postpos. (Gr. § 731), with abl. * before, from'; 

— w. ace. •besides*.— Ys. 57.18 (w. abl. bis), 25; Yd. 3.27 (with 

ace. ^^r<^^»f )■ — [Skt. pards; cf. Gk. iidpo^] . 
pardkatarit9ma-t MS. paro.kalarU?ma» (pt oh. para Jlia- =^ Skt. pardka- 

+ /arlia' q. v.): superl. adj. 'fled from even at a distance'. — 

Ys. 57.13. Here the MS. reading pard,kaiarit?m9m is given by 

the Phl.Vers. pii-kAmak'tAm * foremost in loving*. 
pariU' (if SkL y/ar/-, pru^^}): sb. n. 'drop, stream*. — Cf. parj^va^ 

i»i;6a-(?). — [Cf. New P. parli 'brook, spring'] 
parjlvaniko' (perh. from parjfu- -f ainika-) : adj. • having a drippitig ( ? ) 

face' (i. e. foaming from madness or nit). Uncertain. Perhaps 

here a^mka- is 'line of battle', cf. ppr*pva*nika-*—\i. 14.15. 
paskUi {from pasca, Gr. § 731,4): (i) adv. 'behind, from behind'; — 

(2) prep, •behind*.— Ys. 57.29 (bis).— [Skt. paia^] 
pasca: prep. w. ace. 'after*. — Ysw 57.10,16. 

[Skt. pafctj; Old P. pas4; cf. Phi. pas; New P. pas] • 
pascalta (from pasca) : adv. * after, afterwards '. —Ys. 57. 1 7 pascaita . . . 

ya^ * since' (cf. Biblical * after that' Jer. xxxi.19). 
y/ff-; vb. cl. 2 'keep, protect'. \-ni 'keep S9iit.\'-^pd*ti pres. indie. 

act. 3 sg. Yt. 14.12; nip&Hi Ys. 57.16 (bis); nipayiSb pres. opt. 

act. 2sg. Ys. S7'2S; "pdi^ pass, ptcpl. Ys. 57.34; Yt. 14.12. 
[Skt. pa-; Old P. pa-; New P. pSytdan] 
p&irivdza- (from /«'>/+ y^'^^^-, Gr. § 60a): adj. 'rushing about'.— 

Yt. 14.15. 
papra^ (from V/5-)- ^b. n. 'keeping, protection'. — Yt. 5.6 dat. sg. infin. 
[Skt. pdira-; cf. Phi. pd$ (Bund.) ; New P. pds, pahrah (Horn)] 



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fiia- (from /0^/-}: sb. m. *£oot'.— Va.6.46. 

[Skt. fida-; Phi. fai; New P. pih /^] 

papa- (from Ypd-Y adj. * protecting ^ — Cf. next word. 

pap d^vacah' (from pSpa -\-v) : adj. * whose words protect '. — Ys. 57-20 note. 

payu- (from y/J-): sb. m. * keeper, protector*.— /Jytf /wi?r>//drfl ace. 
du. (dvandva, Gr, § 879) Ys. 57«a note. 
[Skt. pSyu-; cf. Phi. pSuak] 

pajlna-: sb. m. 'heel'.— Cf. kasu.p&ina-. 

[Cf. Skt. pdrm-; Phi. /a*w*; New P. /tf/ntf^J 

YP^'» /iifv-.* vb. cl. 5 •advance*.— Cf, tfyf«./J//ttw-. — [Skt. //-, //iw-] 

pUar-, patar-, ptar-: sb. m. (dcln. (;/•. §§ 322, aSS) 'father'.— 
Ys. XI.4. 

[Skt. pitdr-; Old P. /iVtfr-; Phi. pit; New P, /iVii/-, pid] 

ypiS'T Tb. *focm, adorn \—Cf. paitah-. 

[Skt. /«/./ Phi. pisitan; New P, ii^#j/air 'adorn'] 

y>iir|^4i- {hom panea): num. adj. ((7r. § 374) 'iilUi'.— Yt. 14- 1 5- 
[Cf. Skt. paAii'ikat] 

pupra-: sb. m. 'son'.— Ys. xi.i; Vd. 3.25; Vd. 19.6.— Cf. aptdfira-. 

[SXitputrd-; 0\dF. pitXa-; Vh\. pasar, pas ; l!itvrP.pusar,par] 

pir^pu^i adj. 'broad, wide'. — See next word. — [Skt. prtku-\ 

p9r»p M*fr aka- (from /• +A*) : ^y * wide-expanding '.— Yt. 5, 1 . 

P9r»na' (from Y^')'- *^> *^^*' — **^- ^' *a fiill vessel'.— «« p9r9nqm 
'down to the full (vessel of milk at the sacrifice)' Yt. 5.1^8. — 
Cf. also tf/^/'wflytf /&«-.— [Skt. pHrtjtd'! Phi. pQr; New P. pur\ 

pifS', see under Y/^^'* 

pfiC' (for /7r*/tf-, Gr, § 163, probably from yi/»r-): pass, ptcpl. adj. 
'filled (i. e. with sin), condemned, forfeit*. A difficult and 
uncertain word, though its general idea is clear. In the ex- 
pressions p9idJauu', p9i&^Sra', the i<^ference seems to be to a 
superfluity of sins which would render the body (or head) for- 
feit when weighed in the balance and would prevent the soul 
from safely crossing the Chinvat Bridge. When a person be- 
comes p9i$*tanu-, piiSt^dra^, he is practically condemned as one 
possessed; atonement by castigation etc. (see upSzana-) is ne- 
cessary in order drive out evil and to increase the weight on 
the right tide of the scale. — See next word. 

p9id.tanu' (from Uia—^- iaHa-)x (1) sb. f. 'a body filled with sin';— 
(2) sdj. * having etc' i. e. ' damned '. See under /^/a-.— /r/^'.- 
tanuye dat. sg. Vd.6^8. — [Cf. New P. baUtan 'vile wretch'] 

p9iQ,sAra' (from P9ia- -^ sSra-) : (i) adj. 'whose head is forfeit' (cf. 
/»*»-)-^(a) sb. m. 'criminal'.— Ys. 11.3 (cf. Yt. 14.46). 



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8o p^ft^ — fravdka-' 

po**ru' (from y"i/<fr-): adj. 'full, fBafiy, rich'.-«-Comp$uisoii fnf»ru^, 

frdyah-, frmlta- * noXu^, «Xct(r^, icXttOTOC' {p^* § 3^5) Vd. 3.23,29. 

— Sec next word. 

fSkt. fmru^: Old P. pam'>; Phi. p^; New P, pur\ 
P^^ru.Hsa^Uti' (from /« + aaa^Jitt" q. v.) : adj. ' rich in undemanding '. 

— Ys. 57.20. 
pouru.naru' (from /• + ««/--): Adj. 'thronged with nien\ — Ys. 11.2. 
po»rumatit' (from pt}»»ru', Gr, § 8Si): adj. * ctoy9ditA\-^pat^nimaUi 

loc. sg. D. Y$. IX.2. 
pc^ru.sar^da- (from p^-^sar^dn-): adj. <in«nlfbld'. — ^Ys- «1.6. 

{PhL p^rsartak] 
po''ru,spaJf/fi' (from /•-f--'*): si'- f- 'full watch over '.— Ys. 57.26, 

PhlVerR. hiw pul pdspStah (cf. New P. /lix^Jw 'keeper'). 
po^ruiaspa- (cf. aspa-)'. sb. m. nomen propr. 'Pourushaspa'> father of 

Zoroaster.— -Yd. ig.6 uote.— [Fhl. p^riasp; New P. pHrilasp] 

Av. i /. 

/rtf«, /riF; adv. and vbl. prefix {Or. § 750) 'forwards, forth'. 

{Skt. prd: Old P. fra; Phi. /^r, yr^, cf. frds; New P. /^/J 
fraeUu' (see ><>*r«-): superl. adj. *mo»t'.— Vd. 3.23. 
frao^ta^ (from /rrt--f-Y^fftfO' P^*^' ptcpl. adj. < pronounced '. — Cf. 

[Skt. prdkta-] 
Jrao^ti^ (from yi/fli--, 6>. § 78S) : sb. f. 'pronunciation'. — Vsp. 15.2. 
fraQT 9iiia, see under \fvar-, 
fratfrasyan-: sb. m. uom. propr. 'Pranrasyan' (later Afrisyftb). 

— Sec Ys. 1 1.7 note. 
fra»h^r»zif^tqmt sec under yhan-. 

fradapa- (from Ydd-)'. sb. n. 'increase, furtherance*. — Yl 5.6 (infm.). 
fram9r*ti' (from y3#ni/'-): sb. f. •recitation'. — Vsp. 15.2. 
fravafi- (for ^/ravarti-, Gr, § 1 63 from Yvar-): •Fravashi'— one of 
the elements in the spiritual coiistitulion of man, and serving 
as a sort of guardian angel. S^e Ys. 26.1 note; and for the 
worship of the Fravashis, see the Fravardin Yasht (Yt. 13). — 
Ys. 26.1,2 seq. 

[Old P. frdvarii' nomen propr. ; Fhl. /ravya^r (frakar); 
New P. farvar, fravardtn\ 
fravd^ii, see under "J-O-, and Gr, § 51 N. i. 

fravaka- (from /rtf- + Yva<') : sb. n. 'pronottncingi recital *. —Vsp. 15.3. 
[Ci. Slct pravicaPia-] 



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fravSfia fradana- 8 1 

frav&^ia^ \^from f/^iw^i^)! «b. m. (i) *li sprout, shoot'; (a) <sti«k of 
wood'; (3) 'penis'.— Cf. ftavSi^hiiHt-. 

f-rtivaiiaena- (from fravoiia'f Gr, § 829): adj. *msde of s loj;*.— 
sb. m. * log '.— Vd. 6.46 note. 

frmvi' (from iZ/r//^ move* =3 Skt lA^rw-): sb. f. < progress, prosper- 
ity ".—¥>». 57,15 note. 

y/ras*, fiff'S", vb. mchoat. {Gr, § 698) *ssk, question ^'\-a * re- 
spond to, requite, repay\-«-/^^^i4/ prei. Indix:. act. 3 sg. 
Yt. 1 4. 1; dfrasSni subj. act. i sg, Vd. 3-27; p^r^smatwiiu pres. 
ptcpl. mid. loG. pi. m. 'among those that beg' Vd. 3.29. 

[Skt. prui^; Old V fras*; Phi. pOrsttdn: New 1 . pursulan] 

f rasas li' (from \futitft^» 4«A-): »b. I. 'glorification'. — VTs. 57-6,^ 
[Skt. prasasfl'] 

frast^r^ta- (from yj/ar- q. v.) : pass, ptcpl. adj. 'stretched, extended' 
(used of bartom before being tied up). The Fhl.Vers. renders 
by 'bound in. bundles', in accordance with the later custom. — 
frasUr^tdi pa^H bar^smtn abl. 9g. n. {fir, § 966 N. i) Y«. 57.5. 

fraparana- (from y»par; Gr, § 507): adj. 'siamping forwards*. — 
Yt. 14. 1 1. 

fr as rata- (from /ra- 4- y V/^-) : pas.<^. ptcpl. adj. 'famed*. — Yt, 5.3. 

fraia-: adj. 'forward, renovated, prepared' (in the Biblical sense). ^• 
See next word. 

fraiO,car»tar' (from fraSa- + car^lar- q. v.) : adj. * making ready, pre- 
paring* (the world, cf. Vs. 30.9; Yt. 19.11), I e. ready for the 
resurrection and final restoration,* Frashokereti.— /ra/fl.^ar*//-^/;» 
gen. pi. m. Ys. a6.6, epithet of the Saoshyants. q. v. 

frafna- (from Yf''^^'» ^^' § i^o)- sb. m. * question ' -^^d'W/ /r^/w J 
'the Revelation of Ahura' (penyonifred) Ys. 57.24. 

[Skt. praind-; Phi. /rtfj'w, ptirsiin ; New P. pursil] 

/razif'fiti' (from //"«- -r T/^i «<»"•) ' sb. f. 'progeny*. —Cf. a/razaftifi-, 
[Phk farxand: New P. farzand] 

frji, see under /r<w. 

frSka" (from frqnc- q. v.) : adj * forward, expanding '.- -Cf. psr'pa.frcika; 

frSdai.gagpa- (from y/nlif- -f^fl^/J-) : adj. 'making the world in- 
crease' (i.e. helpijig mankind). -Ys. 57.2. 

frSdir^sra- (from //'tf- + "j/'//ar/-) : adj. 'seen afar'. — Vs. 57.27, Pbl. 
Vers. \^9i9 frSs pitdh ' far^'conspicuous '. 

'\ffr3d-: vb. cl l 'increase, promote*. — Cf. ^/rUdaua^, frUdal^^iPa-, 

fradana^ (from YfrSd-^ Gr, § 763): adj. * increasing '.—Cf. add.frd' 
doita-, vqpw&^t et al. 

[Cf. Phi. frad&t, frayul ' help ' ; New P. faryad^ 

6 



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8a frayah' — »Af 

frSyah' {%^t pe^ru*)', compar. adj. < more '•— //-^yJ vohunqm *a supers 
flttity of good things' Vd. 3.29. — See next word. 

/rHyd^kumAta- (from /rdTfn^- + /!•) : adj. *rich in goo4 thoiii^hts'. — 
na frdyoMumatd nom. sg. m. Ys. 57.14,34, i.e. the man who 
has more good (than bad) thoughts, words, deeds (recorded to 
his account). The righteous man has a surplus (frdyd) to his 
credit when the account at death is balanced. See Gr, Introd. 
p.jpiTiii § 44, and Vsp. 25.1 note. 
[Phi. frikamat] 

frdyi.hmta' (from frHyah--\-ka\ta^\ adj. 'rich in good words'.-^ 
Ys. 57.14,34. See under /rJ^J.itfivfa/^i-.—- [Phi. frdAati] 

fr9y9*hvarlta» (from frdyah''\-kv^^\ adj. *rich in good deeds'. — 
Ys. 57.14, 34. See uxk^ex frdyd^humata" above. 
[Phi. frdhavarii] 

frdravka- (perhaps from fra- + '\frd', rak-) : adj. * beetowing gifts '• 
— Yt. 5.8. 

frdlmi-: adj. * restoring, regenerstiiig ' ( ? ). — kmomd frdimii Ys. 5 7. 1 9, 
uncertain, but probably alludes to the part played by Haoma 
at the resurrection and regeneration of the world (Fraj^kirHi), 
— Cf. ku /raimdJaUi'. 

fr8imd,ddUi- (ct frdimi-, and y<^-): sb. f. * sunset '—first quarter of 
the night, evening twilight.— /toj<ra ka frdimdJdUfm 'after sun- 
down* Ys. 57.10, 16, 

[Phi. Vers, merely transcribes kii-frdU/nd-^idtd] 

fripa- (from Yfrf-): adj. •beloved'.— Ys. 57.34. 

Yfrt-: vb. cl. 9 {Gr, § 585) 'gladden, love'.— -f J 'bless, curse'. 
— See under dfrivacak- above. 

[Skt. prt-: Phi. afrUan, afrimian; New P. afrldan[ 

frfr^naoi, see under yar- above. 

frqnc' (from /rfl, Gr, § 287): adj. 'forward'. — CL frdka- above. 
[Skt. prdAc-; Phi. frdc, fraz; New P. fardz] 

fry a- (from Yfri-) : adj. 'dear'.— sb. m. 'friend*.— Ys. 57.34; Vd. 3.25 (bis). 
[Skt. priya-; New P. farl (Horn) J 

/iaoftaya- (from //«<?»/-) : vb. denom. {Gr. § 695) 'fatten* (4it. Xs^O* 
—f$aonayeke pres. indie, mid. 2 sg. Ys. xi.l. 

fiaoni' (from Yf^'*') • sh. (i) * fatness ', (2) 'food, fodder'.— Cf. fiaonayu'. 

Yfi^'- vb. cl. 4 'make thrive, increase, raise cattle'.— /tV^qj pres. act. 
ptcpl. nom. sg. m. (Gr* § 291) Ys. 11.6. See under vdstrya*. 

//i*/a- (from V/^')* *^J* * thriving, prosperous'.— //i//<i/ra mqprd Uhc 
World of Prosperity * (i. e. the Fshusha Manthra Chapter, Ys. 58) 
Ys. 57.22. — [Phi. ffui-mdnsar] 



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Av._j b, 

hairy a' (from '^bar^t Gr. § 812): .adj. 'bearing'. — Cf. har'PdJbairya^, 
baiiana-' (from ybiiaz- ♦beaV): »b. n% < remedy, balm*.— Yt 1442} 3. 

[Skt. bhifajd-; Phi. biiax; cf. New P. bizUk] 
baiiatya* (from baSiaza-, Gr. § 852): adj. * healing'. — Ys. 57.19; Yt. 5.1; 

Yt. X4.3. 
baa da h' (from ybud- q. v.): sb. n. 'consciousness' — o^c of the ^iri- 

tual faculties; the sense or perception whereby impn^ssions arc 

received.— Ys. 26.4 (see note); Yd. 19.7. 
'\fba\i^: vb. cl. z (i) 'divide, share, present'; (2) 'partake, eat'. — 

bafIaA€ pres. indie, mid. 2 sg. Ys. zz.i (cf. Yt. 6.7). 
[Skt. b^aJkf-; Phi. bafhtan, baHUm; New P. ba^iidan] 
Ybai§d': yb. cl. z, zo ^h\tid\-'paitdaya$ pref. indie, act. 3 sg. Ys. ZI.7; 

bandayli$ subj. act. 3 sg. (cf. below under md) Ys. zz.7. 
[Skt. bandk'i Old P. bad-; Phi. bastan; New P. bastan\ 
yfbar-: vb. cl. z *bear, carry*. — y ava 'bestow upon' (Yt. 5.2); 

also *flov* (intrans.Yt.5.5). h<J 'bring forth, display'. 

— »-f «/tf *bring unto, bestow'. H<^' 'bring forth'. — 

■\-para *bear away* (reap a harvest). ^ a«/<i.^tfrtf»Vi pres. indie. 

act. 3 sg. Yt, 5.2, 5 ; Yd. 3.25 ; HbaraUi Yt. Z4.12; upa . . . bartdti 

Yd. 3.25; usbafre pres. indie, mid. I sg. Yt. 5.6; ba^rytinte pres. 

indie, pass. 3 pi. Yd. 3.29;. barqi pret, indie, act. 3 sg. Yt. Z4.2; 

barama subj. act. z pi. Yd. 6.44, 49 ; paraMrqn subj. act. 3 pi. 

'they (i.e. men) shall reap a harvest' Yd. 3*27; barntt^m frajasqn 

pres. ptcpl. act. ace. sg. m. {Gr, § 938) Yd. 6.46, 47 ; barimn&i pres. 

ptcpl. mid. dat sg. m. 'riding* Yt. 5.4. — Cf. also bahya^t hqm,- 

^^rJ'/arflf-.— [Skt. bhar-; Old P. ^ar-; Phi. Ourtan; New P. burdan] 
bar'fri' (fern, to bar^tar- m. from yfbar-, Gr, § 787): sb. f. 'mother'. 

— Cf. bar^pryO'. 
bar'PryO' (from bar'Prt'-y, sb. n. 'mother*s womb'. — Yd. Z9.6 (cf. »«-). 
bar^smatt' {it^^va Y^arz-): sb. n. ^baresma, barsom', — the sacred twigs 

used by the Parsis at their religious ceremonies. The number 

of the twigs (cf. Ys. 57.4) varied according to the ceremony. 

The Greeks described them as ^d^Sot. Brass rods have in later 

times replaced the real twigs.— Ys. 57.6; Yt5. 9; Yt. Z4. 5; 

bar»smm for abl, sg. (Gr, § 308) Ys. 57.2. 
[PhL barsom; N^w P. barsunt] 
bar'zah^ (from Ybarz-)', sb. n. 'height'. — Ys. 57.19,21 'upon the 

highest height' (loc. sg.); Yt. 5.3. 

[Cf. Skt. ^barJias-; Phi. burz; New P. burz] 



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8 J. bar^id' — b^r'tant- 

bar*zd' (from iT^rtrt-) : sb. (adj.) f. 'height*. — nomen propr. Haraiti 

Bareza (Mount Alborz). — Ys. 57.19,21 * upon Mount Alborz'. 

— Cf. bffta; 
bar»zii^ (from y^i/rr*-) : sb. n. 'mat, Cushion'.— €f. haMr»uh. 

[Cf. Ski. barhis-: Phi. buHin; New P hdlii » pillow, cushion'] 
bar9%ilta^ (soperT. lo btr^aftt") -. adj. • highest '.—Ys. 57.19,21; V<1. 6aJ5. 

fSkt. bdrhiftka-; Phi. bHiist] 
Yd art': vb. 'grow, be High, be great'.— Caus. ' exal t V—Cf. ^^^«irjj|/-. 
ba: strengthening perticle, * verily, indeed'.— jw/ bd paUi ^(it is there) 

verily, wherever etc.* Yd. 3.23. 
bS^diita*, see ander bdSa* 
bada (cf. Skt. yfbadh'- * press'): adv. 'continually'.— Ys. 57.10; Vd. 3.27, 29. 

Superi. b^mUim {Gt\ % 731. l) Vd. 6.45. 
bamya- (from bdma*- = ^K, bkAma- 'brightness'): adj. 'bright'. — Mtani^ 

raf?m b&mtm ace. sg. n. Ys. 57.31. — [Phi. hdmlk: New P. bamt\ 
ha^ar- (for bar^iar-, from ybar^, Gr, §§ 163, 787 N. i): sb. m. 'rider*. 

— Ys. 1 1.2. — [Cf. Skt. bkartar-; Phi. bilrtiir] 
bdxu-: sb. m. f. (1) 'arm', (2) 'foreleg' (of animals).— (^0^/?^ nom. pi. 

Yt. 5.7; batv^ loc. instr. sg. m. Vd. 3.25,26,28. — Cf. aJf^bOzu-, 
[Skt. bMA'i Phi. bazSi; New P. bazu, bSz] 
Idzu.siaoyah' (from ^+j/*): adj. 'stoutar than an arm'.— /^Jsv.- 

slaoyehi Vt. 5.7. 
baztti.aojah- (from b^zu^ -^ ttojaff, Gr. § 867 N. i): adj. 'strong- 
armed'.— Ys. 57.33.— [Sict. ^aA«-<?/Vif-] 
bifya-: num. adj. (^r. § 374) 'aecond'.— Vt. 14.7 {Gr, § 997 expl.). 

[Skt. Mtfya-: Old P. dutfitiya-; cf. Phi. ditlgar] 
Ybud-: vb. cl. X, 4 'know, perceive, be awaae*.— Cf. baodah- above. 

[Ski. hudh'\ 
bn-: vb. cl. 1 'become, be'. — huyCb aor. opt. 2 sg. [Gr, § 645) Ys. xi.i 

seq.; Yt. 5.9. 

[Skt. bha-: Old p. bn-; Phi. bman; New P. ^faAfw| 
bir'Pya- (from |/'^*ar-): adj. 'burdened, laden'. —^7r'/^ nom. ^. f. 

i^r. §g 24S, 67) Yd. 3.27 note. 
bur'ia- (from j.'^^rz-): adj. 'high, tall*.— Ys. 57-30; Yt. 14.12.— Cf. also 

bar^sd^, b9r*U'. 
bir^za^di' (from bfr^zH'^ '^ di^ ^'V.): adj. 'high-spirited, valiant'. — 

hr'zaidfrn ace. sg. ni. Ys. 57.11. On the variant b^Haifttn here 

see note ad loc.—* [Phi. burz, burzHk ; New P. birrz^ 
h?r^Kanl' (ptcph of |/'^(7rc-): adj. (dcln. Gi». § 291) 'great, lofky'. — 

Vs. 26.3 ; Vs. 57.3 (-aCc. sg. f.), 4. 

[Skt. hrhdnt-; Phi. Mtland; New P. butand\ 



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b^r^ti'. sidc-fonn of btr^ia* in compounds. —See next word. 
b9r*%yista^ (from ^^r**i- + y^^fii-) : adj. * high^'g^irt ' (with loins girt up 

for fighting or for helping),— Vs. 57.30 

^brl.: vb, cl. 9 \Gr. § 591. 2) 'cut* Cf. brdi^a- 

[SkL bkrt^; Phi. barttan; New P. burrdan] 
brdipra- (from y^^ri-, (Tr. § 791); sb. n. 'knife, battle-axe'. 
broipr6,tabla- (from ^/-^ ^- taiia-) : adj. sharp as a knife *. — Ys. 57.3 1 

snafpa . . . broifrdUoH^m ' a keen-edged weapon '. 

Av. -6 m. 

maUi' (from "yfrnan-, Gr. g 788): sb. f. 'luind, thought'.— Cf. Jr>wtf»//-. 

[Skt. ttuUi^; Phi. •Ma/] 
maidf^'i adj. * middle' (racdius).— Yu 5.4. — Cf. mafdyd'v-y ptadfma^. 

[Skt. *Hdd^a-; cC Phi. tfaiyUft,; New P. fv/va^j 
« 'V>' </ 1./ a « ^ I f /J » tf - (from ma'dya^^ Gr, § *7 7 + pa*tiStdna) : ad} 
*half a foot (or leg) high '.— /rya^iff/ ... maiiyiLpaUih&nqsca 
ftcc. pi. m. Ys. 57.6. Phi Vers. haA cand miySmo patilidno, 
ma*HiMna', see under yfmau-* 

ma^nivasah' (for maUtyv-asak; from ma^nyu- ■^- asah-t Gr. § 68): adj. 

'darting through the heavenly apace ' (epithet of horses, arrow). 

The Phi.Vers. has pavan maJndg dtvdkih ' through the <ioiniain 

of the spirit' (I?. VV. West).— Ys. 57.27. 

ma'nyava- (from ma*nyu-)\ adj. 'spiritual, heavenly*,— ma'nyavanqm 

yszaiaaam gen. pi. Yl. i4«i« 
ma*nyU' (from 'j/'/waff*, Gr, g 814): «b. m. 'spirit*. — ma^nya .. sp^n^o 
.. airr<? nom. du« Ormazd and Aiiriman' Ys. 57.17. See also 
Ys. 57.3a J Yt. 14.1; Yd. X9.S seq. 

[Cf. Skt. manyu-: Phi. inatmQgi New P. mind\ 
ma^ryik^ (from |^i «<rr*): adj. 'deadly, murderous . — sb. m. * murderer, 
criminal'. — ma*rfm ace. sg. m. {Gr% g ^^9) Ysw 11.7. 
[PhL mar] 
•maija^ (from |A«f/a-): sb. m. 'cloud'. — Ys* 57*28 (ab). du.), see note. 

[Skt. migkd-; cf. Phi. nUznak, m^j{Vd.); New P. mfj] 
mad^mU' (superl. to ma^dya^ Gr. g 63 N. 3 expl.): adt 'midmost'.— 
Ys. IX.7 'in the middle third of the ctarth'. 
[Skt. madhyamd', Gr. g 63 N. 3] 
maf: prep. w. wstir, abl. gen. (Gr. g 735) 'with'.— Ys. it.4,5. Ys. a6.6; 

Ys. 57.25. — [SkL. /«»«/. Gr. g 140] 
mai.d%ai t^ii (from mai -{- dz4i»nii^) : adj. 'with the explanation' (i. e. 
Zend commentary). — gap^P . . mif/.dza't$iil ace. pi. f. Ys. 57.8. 



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86 mal^pa^tLfrasa" — mat* 

mal.paUufrasa* (from mai '\' pafii '\' /rasa- * question'): adj. •wWi 

answers to the questions'. — Ys. 57.8, compare perhaps such 

catechetical chapters as Ys. 19.16-21; Ys. az.x-5. 

[Cf. Vh!L,pa/rSs 'inquisition, punishment'; New P. AA^/rAi] 
ynftfM*; vh. cl. 4*think'. — Caus. *make h elie v e \^^ mqnay^n aki^af a 

pret (injunct.) act. 3 pL Vd. 3.35 * let them thitak thereof as ' 

(Gr. § 974 gen.) = * just as' (used regularly in comparisons); — 

ma^mmna pres. mid. ptcpl. nom. sg. t {Gr, § 63 expL) Yt 5.7. 
[Skt. man-: Old P. man^; Phi. mainUan] 
Plana, see under azjtn, Gr. § 386* 
mdnah' (from yma/t-): sb. n. * thought, spirit, TeL\nA\^ voku matUf *the- 

Good Mind ' (personified, Gr. Introd. p. xxv g 34) Ys. 57.24 ; 

manavha ma^nimna * thinking in mind ' {Gr, § 941 expl.) Yt. 5.7. 

— Cf. also J/»tfiMiy^0.-— [Skt. mdnas^; PM. •man; New P. •man] 
manakya* (from manah-") : adj. ' spiritual'. — Ys. 57.25. 
yiwar-; vb. cl. 4 'die' (sec also Gr, § 677).-— Cf. am^rUdi^, am^ia-, 

maWya-, mar'tan*, 

[Skt. mar-; Old P. mar-; Phi. mQrtan; New P. murdan\ 
Y^mar-: vb. cl. i, 3 (i) 'have in mind, remember'; (2) * recite '.-- 

Cf. fram9r*ti'. 

[Skt smar- (Gr, § 140); Phi. hdlmHrtan; New P. himurdan] 
mar* tan ' (from yny/ar-): sb. m. 'mortal, man'. Esp. gaya mar»ian 

*Gaya Maretan' (lit. * living-man'), the first man, Adam.— 

Ys. 26.5, 10. -« [Phi. gdydmart: New P. gayomard] 
ymark-, m9r»nc-: vb. cl. 7 'destroy* (Gr, §§ 555, 563).~i»9^^0y«Atf 

pres. imperal. mid. 2 sg. {Gr, § 563) Vd. 19.6. 
[Cf. Skt. marc-; Phi. maranctmtan] 
marivi; sb, f. * paunch, gut*. — marfuya gen. sg. (Gr, § 62, l) Ys. 11. i. 

Nar. here has dvffddarSya (cf. Eng. * greedy-gut *). 
mas- (side-form of maz- q. v.): adj. 'great*. — Cf. masak-, masita*. 

[Phi. mas; New P. mih] 
mas ah' (from mas-)', sb. n. 'greatness, sixe*. — Yt. 5.3 ace. sg., Gr, § 934. 

[Cf. Phi. masth] 
tnasita- (from mas-)-, adj. * great '.—Yt. 5.3. 

mas ti' (for ^mad-ii, Gk. |ia6-, cf. mazdSh-y. sb. f. * wisdom*. — Ys. 57.20. 

ma^ya- (from |/^iwjr-, Gr. § 163 expl.) : sb. m. 'mortal, man'. — Yt. 14.4. 

[Skt. mdrtya-; Old P. martiya-; Phi. martHm; New P. mardam] 

majfyo.vatf/ia- (from majfya- + ^2 vaA-) : adj. • serving as clothing tot 

man' (i.e. camel's hair). — Yt. 14.11 note. 
maz- (from y"/«drar- * be great' = .Skt. |^wtf^-): adj. 'great*. — See also 

i^/flf-. — [Skt. maA"] 



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mazai§t' — mqm g jr 

ma9ant* (orig. ptcpL from ymaz- *be great' = Skt. Ymah-) : adj. <great'. 

^^maua noau sg. m. {Gr, § 295) Vsp. 15.3.-^ [Skt. maAdni-] 
maBifta-' (superL to puu-, fnaza^- q-^-)* ^J- 'fiT^flLteatt [tiyiazo^*. — 

Yt. 90.8; Yt 14.12 (bis); Yd. 3.23 'with the greatest joy*. 
[Skt moMfiha-: cf. Old P. mafUta-] 
mandaddta-^ (from mmuAIA- ^ y^ifil-) : adj. 'created by Masda'.— 

Yt. ij.8(bis); Yt X4.2(bis). 
[Cf. PhL aaJkarmaMdOi] 
maudayasHa (from magddA -^ ymsmh)*, adj. sb. m. 'Masdayaanian, wor- 

diipper of Ifaada'.—Ys. 57.13; Ysp. 15.1; Yd. 6.46,51. 
[PhL mOsda/asn] 
maudafii'- (from Ymagda-^ i. e. madk^ + dkl-, cf. fmudaA-): sb. f. 're- 
membering*. — Ysp. 15.2 (dat. sg.). 
ma 9 da A* (from Y*madA-=:GlL, }ia6-): sb. f. (m.) dcln. Gr, % 256 <Masda, 

Wiadom'* Phi. tradition derives it as maM^+ifS- * magna Scientia*. 

AAura Masda *Ormazd' (*Lord of Wisdom') Ys. xl.4 et passim. 

— oM^m yd oAurd mazdm * I who [am] Ahura Mazda ' Yt. 5.6. 
[Skt mldhds^; Old P. aura-maada- ; PhL aaAarmatd; New P. 
^rmuxd\ 
ma%dd,frao\ta' (from mazdllA'-^-fr^)', adj. 'pronounced by Masda*. 

— Yd. S9.9. 
maArAa* (from Y"*^^^'* mtr^-, Gr. § 100 N. i): sb. m. 'deaolation, 

Death'.— Ys. 57.25. 
ma: ady. and conj. 'not, {ai^'. — With opt Ys. ix.2; with im|^erat Yd. 19.6; 

with subjnnct 'in order that not, lest' Ys. xx.7. 
[Skt md; Old P. md; New P. maA] 
masainym-: adj. 'Masanian*. Epithet of a class of demons, 'the Divs 

of Mftzandertn', a province south of Caspian Sea. — Ys. 57.17,32. 
mazdayasua- (from magdayasna', Gr, § 60): adj. ' Masdayaanian ' 

(belonging to the worshippers of Mazda). — dalnqm mdtdayasiam 

ace sg. f. {Gr. § 362) Yd. 19.6. 
y^pf/sr.* vb. cl. X 'make water, drop rain'.— Cf. maija-, 

[Skt mi A-; Phi. mfsatan; New P. miztdatt] 
maraAc" (perh. from Av. wdrtf- 'dumb'): adj. (sb. m.) 'dumb, idiota*. 

— mUrakOca nom. pi. Ys. xx.6, see note. 
m9r^i§C', see under Y^^rA^, marC'. 
mi, see under ag9m, Gr, § 386. 
mqpra- (from yjMan-): sb. m. 'word, apell*. Esp. tn<iPra sp9i§ta 'the 

Holy Word'.— Ys. 57-20,22; Yt 5.9; Yt X4.5. 
[Skt mdntra-: Phi. mamar] 
mqm, see under az^m, Gr, § 386. 



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88 '"'■^ — ymM' 

Ymru'i vb. cl. t (pdgm. 6>. § 517) <speal^ say, c^\\\~ mrao^ pr«t. 
inaic. act. 3515. Yl. 5 i; Vi. 14.1 ; Vd. 3-23; Vd. 6.45. 

[Skt. *riif-] 

Av. ro J. 

>'«-; rc). |)ron. (Or. § 3^9) *who, which'.— {i) pron. of ref«rence, 
pay it pwdr^stHra y& pio9r»i^U ' ibe keeper and judge who de- 
cide ' Ys. 57.2. — (2) equivalcot to coujuttct. 4 demonstr., yd 
(^)Hmum,y0lhd} Yt. 11*1,2; Yt. 14 12-^1) as connective, 
or resembling Gk. article, azim /q akuri nuuut^L 'I who [am] 
Orui3/d' Yt. 5.6; vazjmna yim ttukSm sroo^tm * carrying I he 
(tov) good Sraosha' Y** 57,29; avJutts y4 astvato 'the marerial 
world' Ys. 57.25; fravaiibyo yA *rlripufam * the Fravashis of 
ihe dead' Y5. 26.6.— -See Gr. Fart ii, SynUx of Pronouns. 
[Skr. Ktf, Old P. hya*: V\\\, f, New P. /] 

yaoi, raoi**: a«ivl. gen. sg. as preAx (Gr* § 750 N.) 'right, proper*. 
Cf. next word,— .[Skt. yas] 

yfy a^idd' (from yao^-r- dS-^ Gr. g§ 750 N., 692) ; vb. cl. 3 * purify, cleanse *. 
- ytiozdadahi pres. indie, act. 3 sg, Yt 5.1,5; yanidQtdbyj pass. 
ptcpl. dat. abl; f. Vt 5.8. 

ya^Ui-: sb. m. *twig, stalk*. — Cf. prya\Ui', paticn^ya^Ui", hapta"*. 
[Skt. yani'\ 

Yyat-* vb. cl. 10 (i) * stretch, strive'; (2) < reach, come*. V/ro 

'stretch forwards, speed' "^frayaiaye^tpti pre»v indie, act. 
3 pi. Ys. 57.29. — [.Skt, yatA 

yap a (from ya-)-. rel. adv. and conj. (i) -as, like*; (2) *that, so that*. 
-Ys. 11.3,7; Ys 57.10; Vt. 5.3; Vt. 14.13; Vd. 3.25; Yd 19,6; 
jfapa pahLji/isan . ,, y^pa • that ihey may return ... as' Yt. 5.132. 
[Skt. yatha; Old P, yaps\ 

yd da (from ya^\ rel. adv. *whcn*.-Cf. next word.-— [Skt yadu\ 

y ado it (from yada-\-if)\ adv. *in order that', — Vd. 6.45. 

yal (from ya-, Gr, § 731,1): adv., conj. 'that, since, when \-- pas ca?ia 
... ya^ 'since' (lit. * after that') Ys. 5717; ya/df ... ya^ci/ 
* whether ... or (sivi . . . sive) Ys, 5.7.29 ; ya^ . . . fratacaiti 
'when she tlows forth* Yt. 5.4. — [Skt. yat\ 

Yyam-, yas- (i.e. *y»t'S, Gr. § 6(>8): vb. 'hold* reach, grant'. — 
4- apa * re pe I \—apa,yasai (i. e. yasS[h]i, like ZMindffAJi, Gr. § 450) 
subj. act. 2 sg. Vd. J9.S; apa.yasStu subj. mid. i sg. Yd. IQ.Q. 
[Skt. yoM', yacA-] 

yava-: sb. m. 'grain, corn' (field products, o^p. itar»iiti-). — Vd. 3.23,27 
nole.^[SUt. ydva-; Phi. jav, yav: New P, jatf] 



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'^I'yitS'' vb. incKoaU, sec imder yyam" above. 

yasna- (from Yy^'*")'- ^^ ^' (') 'worship* (consisting of sacrifice, praise, 

thanksgiving, offerings); (2) * Yasna* [Gr* Inttod.. p. xvii g 13), 

See also haptavhUhi^, — Ys. 57.3 (bis), 6, S, 13, »0; Vsp» J5.2 (bis); 

Yt. 5.9,13?: YL 14*5.-- -Cf. fnazdoyasiia*, 

|Skt. yajM^: Phi. ^jif, ya/Hn: New P. w/ii] 
yasnd,k9r*ti'^ (from ^tfx«i- + prob. y^ ^^' 'cUt')j gb. f. •Y«»no- 

kereti', — I c. sectioa of the Yasna. cf. Vtsparad Karder* , The 

rULVers, would rather imply, ^^i ktr- ^make' i. e. performance 

of the sflcriftee, and refers it to the. <n»Qcluding formula Yenhe 

Hatam. -Ys. 57.22. 
Yy^*- vb. c). t * worship* (with sacrifice, praise, thanksgiving, oblation). 

— yazama^de pres. indie, mid. i pi. Ys. 26.1 et passim; yatata 

preu indlc. mid. 3 s^r. Ys. 57.2 (bis), 19; yazdi subj. mid. i sg. 

Vs. 57.3; Yt, 5.9; Yt. 14.5; yazdii€ subj. mid. 3 sg. Yt. 5.8; 

yazaeia pres. opt. mid. 2 sg. [Gr, § 487) Yt. 5.1 ; yatfmmm, «<fi 

pres. ptcpl. mid. ace. (dat.) sg. Yt. 5.132. 
[^kt. ynj; Phi. yuS/m] 
ya%ata- (from \/^«/-, cf, Gr, § 786 N. 2): adj. sb. m^ 'divinity, Angel'. 

—Y*. 57-3.33; Yt. 14. i. 

[Skt. yajaiA': Phi. yattd; New K iMtit yQ%a&tt\ 
yditt^i sb. m. *aor«erer, Yatu*, a clas^ of evil maile musicians. — ydfwqm 

gen. pi. Yt. 14.4. — [Sfct. yRttt-: Phi. y&tilki New P. jddii\ 
ydna^ (firom y^'am- ((. v.): sb. m. 'favor, reward'.— Yt. 14.3; Yd. 19.6. 

(Cf. Ski. yiua^i Old P. ydmi-: Phi. yaa] 
yduava^l' (from ydtta")! adj. 'abounding in Cavers*, — Superl. ydna- 

vaji9m0 Yt. 14. 3. 
yyd J* (prob. j>^fdnnation from |/'^tfmH, Gr. § 698): vb. cl. 1 *aeek'.— 

+ <i/d *seek to with hold \—tf/a ,», yS^sd'ti subj. act. 3 sg. 

Ys 11.5 — [Cf. New P. ydstdati] 
ydsta-t see under lOi^//-v 

Yy^^'f yt^vha-i vb. cK a. 10 * ^d^.—ydsUu- pass, ptcpl. cf, ^r*y69^a», 
Yy^i^i vb. cl I *yokc, bind, gird'. — Cf. yii\tar^, ya^da-, 

[Skt. jK///-, Phi. 3yujttan\ 
Yy^^'- vb. cl. 4 *fight*.— /rf'<K/'V/ pres. indie, act 3 sg. Ys. 57.17. 

^VK.yudk\ 
Yyui-: vb. d. i 'thake> atir*. h^ 'boil up, b u b b I c '. -— >v<»2/«/i 

pros, indie act. 3 pL Yt. 5.4 ; 4 ... yOMciti' pres. indie, act. 3 sg. 

Yt. 5.4. 
yaftar- (from Yy^J')' *^* "^^ *®'** ^^^ harnesses '.—>'«|/tf nom. sg. 

Ys. iJi.s.^[Phl. dydflar] 



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yaJ^da^ (from Yyaj-, Gr. % y*j N. 3): adj. 'girded, ready for battle'. 

— varanahe ... ygfdaAe 'of a boar ready to fight' Yt 14.15. 
yanqm, see under yvan below. 
ye^^ti, see under yi-. 
ytfhMda (from/tf-): rel. adn (abL f. adv., Gr. §§ 329, 731) * where*. 

— vupi nmdna ...ytfkSda *all the houses ... where' Ys. 57*34. 
ytflht hdt%mt Me Yt. 5.9 note. 
yitnya'; (from yssna; Gr, § 852 expl.): adj. 'worthy of worship*. — 

Yt. s*i.— [Skt. yaj^ya-] 
ytni (from JW-): cooj. •if*.— Yd. 6.46,47,51. — [Skt. yddi; Old P. yodiy\ 
y^ifkqm, see under ^a-, Gr, § 399. 
yvam', yCn*: sb« m. (dcln. Gr. § 314 N. i) 'youth, young man*.— 

Ys, 57.13. 

[Skt. ythmm' (Gr. § 68 b); Phi. yuvM/hjavdm; New P. jovSh] 

Av. > r. 

raivai§i' (from rdi-): adj. ' radiant, splendid *. — raiva nom. sg. m. (Cr. 

§ 295) Yt. X4.12.— [Cf. Skt. rivdnt-; PHI. rdydmand] 
raaflna' (from yriif): adj. 'shining*. — Ys. 57.27 (of white steeds).— 

Cf. also Mta.nMf/na-.'^lPhl rdlan; New P. rflan] 
raocah* (from yr«f-): sb. n. * light, day*. — raocm ace. pl« in loose qpcl. 

raocmMiwuxfafna Vd. 6.51, See a*wi,varHta', 

[Cf. SkL rJfix-; Old P. raucah-; Phi. r^/; New P. r^«] 
raoda- (from j/"! r««rf-): sb. m. 'form, face'. — Cf. kuraoda-, 

[Skt. rSka-; cf. Phi. fJ«// New P. r«/] 
raoia*: sb. m. ' fox *• — Vd. 6.50. 
ratU'! sb. m. (i) 'master, Rata*,— a spiritual chief or head presiding 

over a dass of things or beings, or over a division of time; — 

(2) 'division of a day' (named from its presiding genius).—- 

Ys. 57.2 (bis).— [Phi. rat, rata; New P. rad.—Ql. Skt. ftu-] 
rapa*: sb. m. 'wagon, chariot'.— Cf. rtf/<i?//#-, — [Skt. rAtka^ 
rapaiitd', ra^aiitar^ (from rafa- •\-\' std-, Gr, §§ 877, 881): sb. nu 

(dchu Gr* §§ 249, 330) 'warrior', a man belonging to the 

second class; see dpravan-, vastrya fluyant^^rapaiUib nom. sg. 

Ys. 11.6; gen. sg. Ys. 57,33. 

[Skt. rathgfihi-; Phi. aratihSr; New P. aratMdr\ 
rapwya- (from ratu-, Gr. g 852erpl.): adj. ' well-ordjered, proper*. — 

Vsp. Z5.1 i rapwfm paima ace. sg. n. Yt. 5.2. 
[Cf. Skt. r^iya\ 
Yrd't rdk-: vb. cl. 2 'grant, bestow *.- Cf. /rJrtfwia-. — [Skt Yrd-] 



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rdi' — vac'» 



91 



rdi', rai^\itom Yrd-): sb. f. (dcln. Or, % 2^^) 'radiance, aplendor'. 
— ake raya k^ar^navktua *for his radiance and his glory' instr. 
sg. (formulaic) Ys. 57.3; Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5. — [Slct. rJ/-; Phi. rdi] 
YruC': vb. cL xo 'ahine, be bright '« 

[Skt ru<>; Phi. af-rsHtan; New P. af^rditan] 
yi rj^</-: vb. cL i •grow*. — Cf. kuraoAt-, 

[Skt. ruh-: PhL rittan; New P. rmtat^ 

Av. ^ V. 

f«'r/- (from yitwr-): sb. m. *laka'. — Cf. tw^rya*. 

[Cf. Skt vdri^: Phi. wr-] 
tva^rya* (from vahi-)*. sb. m. * channer.— Yt. 5.4. 
tps^ryo' (from 1^2 vnr-): adj. 'wiahad-for, desirable*. Esp. a^i^iM 

v^rya (sec a^jtfiMi-)^ iiafra vafrya (fir, Introd. p. xxvi § 35). — 

Ys. 57. 2 a, 24 ; Vd. 1 9. i o. — • [Skt. vdrya-] 
vai^kya i. e. ffta^hya, see under «vtf. 
vaija" (from VvV- *dart, strike' = Skt. Yvij-)\ sb. m. 'stroke' (of 

weapon). — Cf. Av4.vtf//tf-.«— [Skt. r^^-] 
va9}d, see below under yi viV/-. 
vaidya-" (fronl ^i t«V-): (1) adj. * knowing \>-(2) sb. n. 'knowledge*. 

— vai^fydca instr. sg. ((7r. g 941) Ys. 57.23. 
Pa0nar^» see under y^an-. 
va^dana* (cty.?, cf. r^^-): sb. m. 'mouth, head'.— -Yt. 14.13. 

[PhL V4gtan\ . 
vawkU't v^kU' (from Hh^su from yv«fi-, Geldner): adj. 'good' (orig. 

something won, praiseworthy). — vamkul nom. sg. m. Ys. xi.8; 

vokOm srM^ifm ace sg. m. Ys. 57.29 ; vamAluI 4>fwi^dijht4 geo. 

sg. m. Vd. 3.24 note ; voku karhtd ace. sg. n. Yt. X4.2 ; vokm 

vOstrya aec pi. n. Vsp. 15.1 ; vohumqm gen. pL n. Vd. 3.29. — 

vawuklm ace. sg. f. Ys. 57.3; Vd. 19.6,7; vamuMI fravalayi ace. 

pi. f. Vs. a6.i.-~Comparat. vawho ace. sg. n. {Gr, § 365), Yt. 5.9. 
[Skt. vdnt»; Old P. vahu- (in nom. propr.) ; Phi. vek; New P. kak] 
yVtfife-, see under yswf-. 
y*frtftf-, vak-: vb. cl. 2 'say, apeak*. V/ra 'pronounce'.— /rn- 

vaoce pf. indie, mid. (pass.) 3 sg. (cf. Gr. § 606) Vsp. 15.3; 

fravaiiycUe fut. mid. (pass.) 3 sg. {Gr. § 672) Vsp. 15.3; 

^fr<io\ta' pass, ptcpl. (cf. «iaa:</*./r»).— [Skt. vac-^ 
vac-fVdC" (from yvac-)'. sb. masc. (C7r. § 220 N. i, dcln. § 285) 'speech, 

word, prayer*. — vacqm gen. pi. Vsp. 15.3; vaca instr. sg. Yt 5.9 

(bis); Vd. 19.8,9. — [Skt. vde-: Phi. vaj; New P. haj, Mt, tfrtht] 



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1 



a2 vaatJk i var- 

varaA^ (from Yv^-): sb. b. *frord .►- Cf. vacasiaJii-, kvacah', 
|:jLl vacai'\ 

Vdea^iaiti^ (from vacak^ -\- Y tml-) \ %h. f. * strophe*. vf> desi«;nates 
both the single strophe and (he chtracterUtic strophe-type of 
a GftthK. Sec remark on introduction to Y^. 3S (Geklner's edi- 
tion). — Cf. next word. 
[Phi. itan/as/] 

vmcastaJiivant^ (from f^): adj. * containing a special strophe'. — 
Ys. 57.8 ace. »g. n. 

yflvad' (a side-form of ^ws-, cf. Ski. intdk-ii * bride', Y^^^'Y ^'^' 
(i) 'to lead', (2) 'mairr'i (3) * cover, copuUite' (uf aniinals). 
— A verb inferable from i3dayoita, hfaitvadapa- (?J, vadreyaona^y 
vada*ryu' {? 2 vadaf, cf. ^Sta), cf. G«ldncr, Dxei Yasht p. 69. 

vada^rU, see next word 

Vi$da*ry*t' (from asiuroed svadar* (rum y I va^- 9- v-): ^^h 'male, 
rutting' (epithet of oamei eager for the female). < //JVrJ vad0ril 
(written for vada^ryui) nom sg. m. Vt. I4«r9; vadairyaoi gen. 
fig. m. Yt. 14 'I (of. also uHr^bttko vadahyavH Yt« 17. 13)- I>ar- 
mesteler renders * burden-bearing ' 

vadajana-: sb. m. nom. propr. * VadBghana ', a wicked ruler favored 
by Ahriman; «C Wert, Pahlavi Te^ts, S^B^E. xviii.ijy, xxiv.103. 
— Yd. 196. — [Phi. vuKghan] 

Yvan*: vb. cl. I * win, strive for, conquer'.— vaaaui subj. act 2 sg. Yd. X9.9 ; 
9/aiUfi (i. c. vand[k]i, Gr. § 450) subj. act. 2 sg. VU. 19.8^ vmoniir* 
{Gr, g 614) pf. indie, act. 3 pi. Ys. 26.4,5.6, — tfanat» (vanant ) 
pres. ptcpl. act. gen. sg. m. Yf;. 57.33; va/ta'ntim pres. ptcpl. act. 
arc. sj;. f. Ys. 57-33; vanano pres. ptcpl. mid. nom. sg. m. {Gr* 
§ 507) y*. 57.15; vavanva pf. ptcpl, act. nom. sg. m. {Gr, § 611) 
Ys. 57.12. — [Skt. van-; Phi. vaniJan] 

VQMaUi" (from ye/ii/«-, cf. Whitney, Skt.Gr. g Ii57g): sb. f. 'victory'. 
■-^anaitU ace. pi. Ys. 57.33. 

vane^'iivanf' (from vaftafti-): adj. 'endowed with victory'. — Ys. 57.33. 

t/atfiU' (from ^sw//*): sb. m. * spouse *. —/>'>tf'' vai§tave (used of a wife, 
cf. Eng. 'spouse* m. f.) dat. sg. Yd. 3.25. 

Yv a/' : vb, d, 4 * pray, invoke \ — ufyemi pres. indie, act. i sg. Ys. a6. \ . 
— Cf. also vahma^, 

vayu' (perhaps from {/"t/i- q. v.); sb. m. (dcln. Gr. § 256 N.) *bird*. — 
vaya'tiifya abl. do. Ys. 57.28, see note. — [Cf. Skt. v/-] 

vayot see under zvi-, 

Yi var^: vb. cl. 5 (Gr. § 567) ^ cover, enclose, protect '♦^ •+- <i»«»i *bc- 
d^ck\^ + Aqm * defend '. — [Skt. ver-; Old P. var-] 



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Ztfar vakUta- gl 

l/2f«#^.: vb. el. 9 (pdgm. Gr, § 584) 'choose, wish, believe*. ^/ra 

* profess a religion' (w. \n%%T.).'^fraor'fila pret. indie, mid. 

3 pl. (pr- § 586 espl.) Yj*. 57.24. — [9kt. wr-/ Old P. var-] 
vardta^: sb. m. 'boar'. — ha varUzahe (i. e. genus and »pecies) Yt. 24. 15. 

(Skt vitrShA*; Phi. ^raz; New P. gura%\ 
var*na*t see n^wiAfafna-, 
var's^t vmr^fa^: sb. m. ^ht\x\-^kaipefiPyika varua lostr. sg. Vd. 6.46. 

[Phi. frtrf, gars; New P. (i*''f^) 
var^jyamna't see nnder y^Witz 
var'zm^ (from yVars>): Vbl. «b. n. *th« doing'. — var^jUlt dat. infin. {Gr, 

§ rao,5) Vsp. 15.1. 
variia- (from |/^«wrs<): pas». ptcpl. (t) adj. 'done*. — (2) sb. m *deed*. 

— Ys. 57.4. — Cr. ^so dnhmrJta^, kvariia-. 
varina-: «b. m. 'snake* (?)— Vs. 11. 6, see note. 
yV arz't rb. cl. 4 ' do, work \ — -H a*vn * c u 1 1 1 v at e , till'. — «»W.v^'«- 

ftki, *e*il pres. Indie, act. 2, 3 sg. Vd; 3.25, 36,28; v^myaiqm 

pres. imperat. mid. (pass-.) 3 sgi {Gn § 485 expl.) Vsp. 15. i 

note; variia pass, ptcpft. acc» pi. n. Ys. 57.4; vmr^iyamna ftit. 

mid. (pass.) ptcpl. ace. pi. n. {Gr, §§ 165, 185-6, 673) Ys. 57.4. 

— cr. also /Ivtf/'y^-.— {Phi. varaiam; New P. varsiJtin] 
vavanvm, see under yfvmt^. 

yvat-: Tb. c). e 'wip, wish*. — Cf. amts^k^, v<wa*-. — [Skt. vah\ 
vasak' (from y^t/tfj-): sb. m. .'will, wiftfa'.-^See next word. 

{Cf. Ski. f/Jitf.; Old P. vaJfHu-; Phi. 9a^; New P. has] 
ttasd.flafra- (from va/<iA* + {f<) : adj 'nillng at will, independent*. 

— Ys. $724. 
yval' (prob. orig. f-nor. to ^vae^t crystallized as new root, Gr, §§ 156,482): 

▼b. cl. z 'speak, say*. — avafata pret indie mid. 3sg. Vd. X9.7. 
yvtfs-; vb. cl. z *carfy, draw (trans.), drive' (intrans.). — + 4 * drive 

hither'.*— 1y(ls^j|/i pres. indie, act. 3 pi. Ys. 37.27; ovatSfH 

sub), mid^ 3 sg. Ys. 37.31 ; vatpmno, •mna pres. ptcpl. mid. nom. 

sg., pi. Yt. 14.2 seq.i Ys. 57.^9.— Cf. pm^riv&ta, 
[Sfct. vah't Phi. vAtiian; New P. vaM4in\ 
yfwak : yi\i, c\. t * dwell*.— [Skt. vai'\ 

Y2vah': vb. cl. a * clothe *. —Cf, majfyi,va»ka»t »<fj/rtf-. — f^kt. va5'\ 
\flvah^, hS^, us- ((7r. §698): vb. cl. i, 'gleam, bum '.--Cf. «r/«A^ 

etc.— [Skt va^-t mf-, uch^'] 
vakil ia^ (superl. to vao/m*t Gr. § 365): adj. 'most excellent, best*. 

-^/ravaiftn vahiitqm ace sg. f. Vs. 26.2 ; uj^m vakiltPtn (see 

tfjii-) Ys. 57*24; mane %a/u asti vahiitftn Vd. 19.9 note. 
[Skt. vdsifthtt"; Phi. vahih; New P. bahiU\ 



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QA vaJkma- — 7/f (vhj 

vahma^ (from '\fvaf't Gr, page 273): sb. m. 'prayer, invocation'. 

Chiefly in the formula, yasndica vahmdica \jtnacprdica frasasta* 

yaica *for worship, prayer, propitiation, and glorification'.-^ 

Vs. 57.6,8 agta vahma instr. sg. Yt. 5.132. 
vakmya- (from vahma-): adj. 'worthy to receive prayer*. — Yt. 5.1. 
vd: conj.' 'or*. — Emph. particle * indeed*. — ^Ys. 57.31 vd ,».vd * either ..* 

or*. Y». XX. 1, 5; Vd. 3.23 et passim; srtra t'J *fair indeed' Yt. 5.7. 
[Skt. vd: Old P. vd] 
vd^rya^ (from vdra-): adj. 'relating to rain*. — apd ya^ vifiryaym 'rain 

water ^ gen. sg. f. {Gr. § 980 expl.) Vd. 6.50. 
vdglibyo, see under tfac-, Gr, § 285. 
vdta- (fipom y»tf- 'blow'): sb. m. 'wind*. — Ys. 57.28, see note; Yt 14.2. 

[Skt. vita-: Phi. vdt: New P. b5d\ 
yvdr- (denom. fr. vdra-); vb. cL x 'to rain*. S-a^wi 'rain upon', 

— Cf. anaiwi,vdrHtii';'^[?\i\. vdritan: New V. bdr^dati[ 
vdra^: sb. m. 'rain*. — vdrai^bya abl. du. Ys. 57.28 note. — Cf. also vd^rya; 

[Cf. Skt. vdr-: Phi. vdrdm; Nfew P. bdrdn] 
vdr^nti*, or vHr'fiti^ (from "[fvdr; cf . harHiti- from "yfhar-') : sb. f, 

'rain'. — Cf. ana^wi*vdr»f^ii^* 
vdr»prajni' (from V9r»p^rajna- q. v.» and cf. Gr. § 825 d): adj. 'vic- 
torious *. — Ys. 57. 21, 22 ; Vsp. 15.3. 
vSstra- (from 'J/'2vtfA-): sb. n. 'grass, pasture*. — Vd. 3»23. — Cf. also 

t'Jx/ry^-. — [Phi. vdstar] 
vdstrya- ({rom vdstra-, C7r. § 852 expl.): adj. 'relating to husbandry'. 

— sb. m. 'hLUsbandman, farmer* (man of the peasant class; 

see apravan-t rapaeUar-), — vdstryd fluyqs ' ihe thrifty hubband- 

man' Ys. xx.6; vohu vdstrya 'the good deleds of husbandry' 

Vsp. 15.1. — [Phi. vdsiryoU] 
tvi^, see under vt below. 
2vi' (perh. from y"vf-): sb. m. (dcln. Gr. § 256 N.) ^hisd\-~vayS nom. 

pi. Vd. 6.45 seq.— Cf. also «*/ytf-. — [Skt. »/-/ Phi. vat] 
y I V id' : vb. cl. 9 'know *. — Caus. +«j *ad dress '. — vaipd (GAv.) pf. 

act. 3sg. {Gr, § 621) Yt. 5.9; vidvOvMo * knowing' pf. ptcpl. 

act. nom. pi. {Gr* § 349) Ys. 57.27; uevasdaya^ caus. pret. indie. 

act. 3sg. Vd. X9.5. — [Skt. vid-] 
Y^ tfid', vifid-: vb. cL 7 {Gr. § 565) 'find, obtain*. — vifidai p^^et. indio. 

act. 3 sg. {Gr. § 565) Vd. X9.6; vinddi (1. e. vi-n'd'd[h]'i, Gr. 

'§§ 565. 450) subj. act. 2 sg. Vd. X9.6. 
[Skt, vid', viftd': PhL vandiian] 
vi (vi**): adv., vbl. prefix 'apart, against '» 

[Skt. vi: Old P. vi {Y^ar-), Phi. w, gw^: New P. gu^\ 



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yvf-; Tb. d. 6 *go after, drive, pursue*. — vye^nii pres.' indie ect. jpL 

Ys. 57.29. — [Skt. vf-] 
vHramani" (from Vl^v-) : adj. ' bruising '.— Ys. 57. 10. 
vi€$<m: sb. m. 'mortar, pottery*. — vUicaififa k>c. pi. Yd. 6.51 (i. e. the 

booec are to be placed in stone osiiuaries, or in terra-cotta vases, 

or in bags). — [PhL gac; New P. gac] 
vidaiva^ (from vi + daiva-) -. adj. ^agminst the Demeiui*,— epithet of 

Zoroastrian divinities or sacred things. — ^Ys. 5.1 (amdkiiqm)* 
9tdidv», tee junder y^-. 
vidvaiUva" (from vi •\- dvadUva- q. v.): adj. < destrosring malice*. — 

Vsp. 15.3. 
vidata^, see under y</J-. 
vidMiu^ (from f^ + y</J-): sb. m. <Vidhatu* (dissohition), demon of 

Death.— v7//^a^/ abl. sg. Ys. 57.25. — [Phi. viMi\ 
vidviB»k$, see under '\fvid', 
Yvff-: vb. cl. 6 <Gome to, become*. — visa/u pret. indie mid. 3 sg. 

Ys. 57.22. — [Skt wi-.} 
Pis- (from Ytn^S"): sb. f. (dcln. Gr. § 279) 'viUage, dan*. Designation 
* of the second division in the constitution of the Iranian state ; 

see nmSfta, (vis), ta^tU', da^yu. — visai abl. sg. Ys. 57.14; vUak4 

gen. sg. (a-ddn., Gr. § 283 N.) Yt. 5.6. 
[Skt vii-; Old P. i^./ Phi. vis] 
vJspa' (cf. viS', Yfns')\ pron. adj. {Gr. § 443) 'all, every*. — Masc. 

visp^ ma^dyo nom. sg. Yt. 5.4; msp9m akum ace. sg. Ys. 57.16; 

vupe daiva (karand, a^rvanta) nom. pi. Ys. 57.18, Yt. 5.4,132; 

vispj ace pi. Ys. 57*29; vtspaii instr. general pi. Ys. 57.17, 

Yt. 5.5; vlsp<Myd daL abl. pL Ys. 57.12; f^spanqm narqm 

(daivanqm, arfitqm) gen. pi. Ys. 26.8 etc., Ys. 57-32, Yt. 5.2. 

— Neut vlspa dqwiqu (nm&na) ace. pi. Ys. 57. 21^4, 34. — Fem. 

vupqm gqm ace. sg. Ys. 57*15 ; vfspa ace. pi. Ys. t6.io, Ys. 57.33, 

Yt. 5.2, Yd. 3.27; vfspaSyd dat. pi. Ys. 26.6; vUpanqm gen. pi. 

Yt. 5.2. — [Skt vOva-; Old P. vfsa-; Phi. vUp\ 
vlspd.paisa- {from v*'\'PaisaA'): adj. * all-adorning, manifold'.— tvjr/0.- 

paisim mastlm 'universal knowledge' ace. sg. f. Ys. 57.20. 
[Cf. Skt vUvdpiias': cf. Phi. Aarvisp-pistt] 
vlsyo'^ (from vfs-): adj. < belonging to the village*. — sb. m. nom. propr. 

* Visya* (hierarch of the village). — adj. propr. *of the Viaya*. 

— vlsya frava^aya, 

[Cf. Skt. vUyh-: Old P. vipiya-] 
vfiidspa" (cf. aspa-y. sb. m. 'Vishtaspa' (Gnshtasp), the Iranian king, 

patron of Zoroaster. (Not to be confounded with Yishtaspa 



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T^ytdonvjc, the father of Darius.)- -iCvz/^// w7/^jp/a/t^ ♦ uf King 

Vishlasp' gen. sg. Vt. 5.132. 

[PW. viitasp; l^ew P. ^^^mjffasp; cf. Old P. vJ/fdspo] 
V9r*pra- (from J/ii/<»r-): sb. n. (t) 'defense', (4) *ftend*.— Yt. 14.3. 

[Cf SkL vrtrd-\ 
vfr'Prajna (from v?r»/>ra^ -f- 1,'7<?»')* *^- "^' (0 •victory ' (Ys. $7.3 etc.); 

(a) 'Verettirei^hna* (genius of Victory, later Varahrait^ SakrUm) 

-Yi5. 57.3, 33 ; Vt. 14.1,2 «eq. — See next word. 
V9r»prajan^ (from V9r9pra"\-'\fjan')\ adj. (dcln. ^r. §317) * victorious*. 

--Y«. a6.io(abUsg.), Ys. 57.2, 5,9(000.)^ 3,4,22 (nom.)? Ysp. 15 2 

(dat), 3 (nom.) ; Vd. 19.5 (nora.). — Cf. also vBi-^prajni-, 
[Cf. Skt. vrtrahdit-] 
vjr*pravan' (from var^pra-, Gr. § 855): adj. * defensive '.- -Sup«rl. 

Vir»pravasi9md noin. sg. m. {fir, § 365 N. 3) Yt. 14.3. 
V9r»zi' (from |/"i'/zr£;-) : adj. * working, effective'. Form regularly used 

in compounds. See next word. 
v9r'ii,do'ipra^ (from V9r»si» -\- ddipra") : adj 'of beneficent glance'. — 

Ys. 26.3, s«e note. » 

V9krka^ (probably from j/ «'/*«/•- '^tear* -.^ Skt. vraieA. sb. m. *wolf '. — 

Yd. 6.50 ace. sg., cf. Gr, § 935 

[Skt. vfkw; Vhl.jurj^; New P. ^Jf*r^J 
V0"ru' (from y"i z/^jt-, Cr>. §38): adj. 'broad, wide'.— See next word. 

[Cf. Skt. t/ru', vdrtyqf' (compar.)] 
vo** ru.kala- {tLva^ru-): sb. m. nom. propr. ■ VourUkasha *» a mythical 

sea.— Yt. 5.3,4.— Gf. below under zraynh-, 
tfokm-, see under vcvku'. 
vohu' manah- (from v^-\-m^)\ sb. n. * Good Thought'. One of the 

Amesha Spentas, guardian genius of the. cattle; Uter called 

BiihmaR. Gr, Tntrod. p. xxv § 33 — Ys. 57.24.* 
fPhl. vahUmmi; New P. bahman\ 
voijnQ' (prob. from ^'vij- = Skt. wy- 'dart, strike ')! sb. f. * plague*. 

- Ys. 57.14. 
vqpwd' (frofli Tj/'f^w*-, Gr, § 792): sb. f, *herd'. 

vqpw d,fr &dana' (from vqpivH- 4 /'"*) '- o.<\}. * herd-increasing '. — Yt. 5. 1 . 
vyaJj^man' (prob. from yvy^fC' = Skt. y^vyac- 'encompass, assemble'): 

sb. n. 'council, assembly '.—Ys. 57.12 (ace. of goal? Gr, § 933 

example), 

AV. » JY (v). 

f/ai*bya, see above under uva-. 



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saita — sdsHtf' 



Av. i> J. 



97 



sadta, dee b«low under yjJ- pret. indie. 

saoka' (from yjnir- q. V.): sb. n. 'we&l, welfare, saving health' (in 

religious sense). — saoka instr. sg. Yt. 14.3. 
saokavatit' (from saoka-)*, adj. 'abounding in wear. — saokavasifmd 

superl. nom. sg. m. Yt. 14.3. 
saoiyat^t' (fut. ptcpl. act. from '\fsu- q. v.): sb. m. 'Saosbyant, Saviour*, 
(l) Designation of ihe prophets or apostles of the faith, espe- 
cially those holy men who wiH ap{)em' in a goodly company at 
the milleiiium and will make the world prepared for the fmal 
restoration. (2) In particular, their leader, the Saoshyant. 
^^ sttojyaittqm gen. pi. Y5. 96.6; saofytn^ai (<7-dcln.) abl. sg. 
Ys. 96.10; saofyqs nom. sg. Vd. 19.5.— '[Phi. saofyds] 
"yfsawh't sak-: vb. *8paak, eay, announce' (of formal speaking). — Cf. 

frmasti-, fuf'ryd.saii^Aa-, '^[SVt iqx-; Old Y. fah-] 
samha* (from ysamk-)', sb. m. 'word*. — nahim samhim nom. propr. q. v. 

Ys. 57.3— [Skt. i^a-\ 
saia-: num. (6V. § 374) * hundred '.'—r/ft/if sa*'te iicc. du. n. Yd. 6.4S. — 

Cf. also i-fl/2iiar'.fa/</-. — [Skt. iaid- ; Phi. sat; New P. sad] 
Ysad': vb. cl. 9, xo * appear'. — sanal pret. indie, act. 3 sg. {Gr, § 591) 
Yt. 14.7,9. — [Skt. iad'! Old "^.pad-; cf. New P. />^-/^W (Horn)] 
sanaf, see under \'saa-. 
safari sb. m. ^)MQol\-^saf3»ho nora. pi. Ys. 57.27. 

{Skt iaphd-; Phi. suut^i New P. sum, si/ ml] 
tarak-: sb. m. *head .—See jJrfl-. — [Skt. iiras-; Phi. sar; New P. sar\ 
sur*da»: sb. m. 'kind, sort'. — Cf. po»rujar»da-. 

[Cf. Skt. sdrdhas-: Old P. parda-; Phi. tariiak; New P. 
sardaht sartak] ^ 

^'sah't see under 'yfsawh-, 

sdldf'.: sb. m. * tormentor, oppressor'. Designation qf a' cla^s of evil 
beings, men or demons. — saprqm gen. pi. Yt. 14.4. 
[Phi. Vers, has sdsi&rd/t ; Nar. has anySydnntn] 
sMra- [cLsara-): sb. m. ^h^md \- -Set Jlrd.sdra', p^fd^sJra-, 

[Phi. sar-vdr 'helmet*; New P. •sSr] 
sdsta^ (pass, pic pi. from yfsdft-)', adj. ^cooam^ded*. — Ci. zavaHd,sSsta', 

tSkt. Msta-] 
tat tar- (from ]/'sah')\ sb. m. • ruler '. —jA'/a notn. sg. Yt. 14.13. 

[Skt. s&stdr-; Phi. .fJj/J;] 
s&sn&' (from /J^-) : sb. f. * commandment, doctrine'. — d. sds^no^gus". 
[Cf. Skt. sdsapia-] 



f 



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g8 sdsnd^ul — starHa*g&tU' 

s(isnd,gui (from sUstid--^- y^i): adj. 'hearkening unto the command* 

ments*. — sSsfid^iqm gen. pi. m. Ys. 26.4. 
Y^ah' (cf. "j/ja^-): vb. cL a (i) 'direct, teach'; (2) 'command, rule** 

— Cf. sSsta-, sSstar-, J<J/«J-. — [Skt. sSs-, Jil-] 
sis pa/a, see under y'2 j/tf-. 
y^i-.' vb. cl. 2, I *lie down, recline \ — saita pret. indie mid. 3 sg. 

Vd. 3.24; sayamno (cl. i) pres. ptcpl. mid. nom. sg. m. Vd. 3.25. 
[Skt. Jf.] 
yfsuc-: Vb. cl. X 'burn, gleam*. — Cf. suka*, 

[Skt. sue-; Phi. sa\tan: New P. 5aJ^tan\ 
s^runvant' (from Ysru-, Gr. § 821 expl.): adj. 'heard, following oral 

tradition'.— j»r«^/if;a/tf instr, sg. m. Ys. 57.3; Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5. 
yjfl-; vb. cl. 4 'swell, increase, prosper^ save' (esp. of good beings^ 

or holy things). — Cf. saoka-, sfviUa^, etc. 
[Skt. Su-; Phi. afzUtan; New P. af%ildan\ 
saka- (from j/'jv/r-): adj. 'bright, gleaming';— sb. m. 'glance, sight'. 

—Cf. darahsUka-, 
sUno, see under span-. 

sara^ (from Y^^' Q- ^0' ^^j- *inigbty, valiant, helpful' (to save). Epi- 
thet of good diviaities.— Ys. 26.1,10; Ys. 57.".,' Yt. 5*ii4i7i9 

(Anahita); sure voc. sg. f. Yt. 5.9,132. 

[Skt. iura-: Old P. para-vdhara" nomen prdpr.] 
siviita- (from Y^^' 9-^)' s"peri- adj. 'most mighty' (to help and 

save). — S9vislahe Vsp. 15.2 (Mazda). — [Skt. Mvi^fAa-] 
sta*ri^ (from j/'j^/ar-); sb. n. 'bedding, carpet'.— Cf. M.sia*ril'. ^ 

[Cf. Skt. siard'i cf. New P. bi-star] 
staoyah' (from stui-, stvi-): compar. adj. 'stouter, thicker'. — Fem. 

'^siaoyehi', — Cf. aspd,st^, dilzu,st^. 
[Skt. stkdviyas'] 
Ystar-i vb. cl. 9 'stretch, spread, extend'. Vfya 'extend'.— /rtf.- 

st9r*nata pret. indie, mid. 3 sg. (Gr* § 591 expl.) Ys. 57.6^ fra- 

slir^ta- pass, ptcpl. (see s. v.) Ys. 57.2. — Cf. star^ta^tu-, staWih. 
[Skt. star-; Phi. vastartan, vistartan; New P. gustardan] 
star- (from y^x/^r-): sb. m. (dcln. Gr* § 329) 'star'. — haca ava^yo stir*' 

byd dat. abl. pi. 'from yonder stars' Yt. 5.132. 
[Skt. star-; Phi. star, stSrak; New P. sitSraK\ 
star'ta- (from jAj/tf /-) : pass, ptcpl. adj. * spread, stretch *. — Cf. star^ta^^ 

gdtU', /rastpr^ fa-, '•^[^kt. sfftd-] 
s tar' ta.gStu- (from star'ta- -{■ g^)-. adj. 'having a divan spread*. — 

ita star'ta.gatuS sayamno 'a man lying upon a spread divan' 

Vd. 3.25. 



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$td spit* gg 

Ysta-: vb. cL 3 < stand \ — kiStahe prcs. indie, mid. 2 sg. Vd. 3.29; hiitaUe 
pres. indie, mid. 3 sg. Yt. 14.13. — Cf. paUHtdna-* 
'^ [Skt sihS"; Old P. sta-] 

Ystu-: vb. cl. a, I (Gr, § 529) 'praise, laud'.— rftf/^ *reno.\ince^ 
o-^stahtni pres. indie, act. I sg. Ys. aO.l; stava^ pres. (scdry.) 
subj. act. 3 sg. {Gr, § 529. 3) Yt. 5.8; apaMav&ne pres. subj. mid. 
I sg. Vd.*i9.7; ^a,stavapuha pres. imperat. mid. 2 sg. Vd. 19.6. 
[Skt. stu-; Phi. stman, stayiian; New P. siiadan] 
YstH'^ (a side-form of ysid-Y vb. 'stand, stand firm, be stout'.— Cf. 

stviJiaofa-t //tftfja^-.— [Skt. sihH^ 
stilt*, stvi- (from yj/tf-) : adj. *ftrm, stout*.— Gf. stvLkao/a-, stao/ah-. 

[Ct Skt. sthUrd', stdvlyas-] 
stand' (from yj/j7* q. v.): sb. f. 'column, pillar'. — Cf. hazawrdMana-. 

[Skt. sfAiffv4'; Phi. stan; New P. sutan] 
slsr'Pwant- (from ^'star-, Gr, § 821): adj. 'leveling, striking down'. 

' — 5t7r»pwata snaipi$a instr. sg. n. Ys. 57. xo. 
stfhrpaisa^ (from star^ +/•) : adj. * star-adorned *. — Ys. 57.2 1. 

[Phi. itar-prnt^ 
stvLka of a - (from //«/- -{- /&•) : adj. * stout-humped * (of camel). — Yt. 14. 12. 
snaipH' (from yjwa/-): sb. n. (dcln. G^/*. § 359) 'weapon*.— Ys. 57.10, 

16,22,-29,31.— '[Ph^ snahft sHaJf (Horn)] 
y/iffl/-; vb. cl. I 'smite, pierce *. —Cf. j«fl/a-, xiw'^ii-. -r- [Skt. iw^M-] 
snapc' (from yjiw/-): sb. m. ' smiting *. —j/f^/^i dat. sg. 'for smitiiig 

down' Ys. 57.32.— .[Phi. snahi, snai (Horn)] 
spaitita- (from yspit-, Gr, § 786): adj. 'white*.— Yt. 14.13. 

[Skt /r«//*-; Phi. spit; New P. sipdd] 
spaJflti' (from "^spa^Jf-, an j-fonnation from yj/aj- q. ▼., (rr. § 158): 

sb. f. 'observation, watchfulness*. 
span- (from y^tf-): sb. m. (dcln. Gr, § 314 N. lb) 'dog*. — sp&nsm 
' ace. sg. Vd. 6.50; sum nom. (ace.) pi. Vd. 6,45,46,47. 

[Skt. ivdu"; Phi. sak, sag: New P. sag[ 
Y^par^: vb. cl. 6 'go, tread, stamp, spring'. — Cf. frasparana-. 

[Skt, sphar-, sphur-; Phi. spurtan (Bund.); New P. sipariian] 
ys^as'.' vb. cl. 4 'watch, observe*. — Cf. po^ru^spaflti'. 
[Skt. spaJ-, pai'] 

y I spd'.- vb. cl. 4 « throw '. h a'pi 'toss'.— a'pi.spaye'ti pres. indie. 

3«g. Yt. 14. 1 3. 

y 2 spd'.' vb. cl. 3 * deck, adorn *. \- fra 'decorate \''^frS . . . sispata 

pret. indie, mid. Yt. 5.7. 
Yspit'i vb. cl. I 'be bright, shining, white*. — Cf. spaitita-, spiH^. 
[Skt. ivit'] 



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1 00 spildmu-' — sravah - 

ipitdma", spiiima- (cf. Yspit; c(. Gr. § 849): patrouym., »b. m, 
*desc«fid€nt of BpiUma*. £sp. Spitama Zarathushtra. — 
Ys. a5.S; V». 57.8; Yt. 5.1 ; Vt. 14.1 ; Vd. 3^2$; Vd. 6.45; Vd. 19.7. 
[Phi. 9fU4mtfi\ 

spiti" (from yj;^//-): adj. *whiU, clear, bright*. — Cf. spUS/tta-t spitL- 
Mpra',^^[Ct Skt. /vi/y'dc-] 

sp 1 1 1, id i^ra- (Crotn spiti- +«/•): adj. * clear-ey«d '. — Yt. 14.17 (of a 
young man). — f l*hl. spii-dJsr] 

spfnta- (from ]/>«- q. v.): adj. ^m^olesome, beneficent, holy*. A 
cardinal Mord in the Avesta, aad rendered in Phi. Vers, by 
aftHnik ' increa-sing, buunleous' (cf. for meaning Eng. * august* 
= reverend, from Lat. aug^eo ' to increase '). Nar. generally has 
a oompd. or superi mahat*, guru*', — Ys. a6.i|3, 10 (iJ'nivMhis) ; 
Ys. 26.3, Ys. 57.2, 6,8, 12, 23, Vd. 19.9 (Amesha Spentas); Ys. 57.24 
(Spenta Armaiti); Ys. 57.17, Vd. X9.9 (Holy Spirit of Ormazd); 
Ys. 57.27 (horses of Sraosha). 

[Cf. Skt svanid-; Thl. •spand ; New P. ^pandt ixfend] 

spsniUa- (superi. to sp^tifa*, Gr. § 365): adj. 'holiest, most bene- 
ficent*. Epithet of Ahura Mazda. — Yt. 14.1 (voc. sg.). 
[Phi. spainiit] 

s marina- (? cf. Skt. imdirtt- 'beard'); sb. m. * hair '.—See next word. 

smarind.daima- (from tmar^no -^ dayman-) : 'having hairy cyce*. — 
Yt. 14.12 (shaggy brows of Bactrian came]). 

srailla- (superi. to noun /rl- *■]. v.): adj. * fairest, most excellent*. — 
Ys. a6.2. — [Skt. JreffAa-] 

sraojia- (from yj/v^-*): sb. m. * hearing, obedience*. Esp. personified 
as divinity, Sraosha (sec Iiilrod. to Ys. 57.1).— Ys. 57.2,3,4, 
13, 14, 25, 26, 32, 33 ; Vsp. 15.X (personified devotion). 
[Phi. sroS; New P. ^erojl] 

sraoio.carana- (from sraofa^ -{- carana- 4- v.): sb. f. *whip, rod* (lit. 
'causing obedience'). A sort of whip or scourge used in con- 
nection with the aspaUe aJUra (q. \.) for inflicting stripes in 
religious ilageliation or self-ca.vtigation.— Vd. 6.48 (instr. sg.). 

sraoJld,pata» (from jr« -f y/<f- q. v.): adj. 'protected by Scaosha, 
under Sraosha's keeping*.— Ys. 57.34 (ace. pi.). 

sraska- (from \''sraxc- q. Vi): sb. m. 'drop, hail'.— See next word. 
[Phi. sriik; New P. siriik 'drop'] 

^srasc": vb. •fall in drops, or as hail t. — srasciutii kar»pib pros, ptcpl. 
nom. pi. fem. 'victuals trickling from the mouth' Vd. 3.29. 

sravah' (from y>r«.): sb. n. 'word*. — sraviS aec. pi. Ys. 57.4. — Cf. 
also f/^//.j;-wi'j^-. — [Skt. srdvas- ; Phi. srav (Horn)] 



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yfiri'i vb. cl. X (i) 'lean» rest'; (») 'betake oneself. — srayane pres. 

ptcpl. mid. nom. sg. m. (Gr, § 507) Vd. 3.29. — [SUt. jW-J 
srl-: sb. fw *beauty» fairnese \— Cf. trira-, ^rtf t*//a-. — [Skt. iW] 
srira^ (from /rf-): adj. *fair, beautiful*. — Ys. 57* >9; Yt. 5.7 (bis); 

YU 14. «» 7»9i 17— [Skt. irfrfl-] 
Ysru-: vb* cl. 5 'hear*. — Cans, •recite*. \-/ra (caus.) •chant'.— 

frasrdvaya^ pret. indio. act. 3 sg. Y.s. 57.8, Vd. 19.10;— /r<M/rtf/tf 

(see ». /.).—■ [Ski. iru-; PhJ. sriktan; New P. srigiian] 
sm-: sb. n. 'horn*. — Cf. jrtJ-, irre^/w-. — [Phi. jrtf*; Naw F. j»ri7] 
sruye, see under jrz%l«. 
srvninn- (from //v-, Cr. § 829): adj. 'made of hook^rsn/aina nom. 

pi. m. Ys. 57.27 (hoofs of horn).— [PhL srMn\ 
srvM' (cf. xnr-): sb. f. 'horn*. — fruye ace. du. Yt. 14.7. — Cf. also ««- 

fa»^9./rv0-.— •[Phi. /n?*, xriw/ New P. suwii\ 



Av. Q} /. 

fait a ' (fr. l/'//-): sb. ». *land, property, possession*. — Ci. faitd^frddana-, 
Haitd^fradantt' (from iasta- ■\- ft^y. adj. * increasing property, further* 

ing the land'.—Yt s-f- 
/^-; adj. 'happy, joyful*.— //» nom. sg. f. (<7r. § 250) Vd; 3.24. 
Yi*"^ v^' <^)* > 'dwell, occupy, possess'. — Cf. aiwuf^itan-, iadta-. 
[Skt. kfi'. Gr. § 158 N. i] 

YiM-: vb. cl. I 'move, -stir*. f-a<}*i •interrupt*. — anapi.iuta- pass. 

ptcpj. (q. V.) Vsp. 15.2. — Cf. also fraima^, fyaopna-, 
[.Skt. cyi4'; Old P. //>«-; New P. ludan\ 
Yi^i' (from ]/"/«-, inchoat, Gr, § 697): inchoat vb. cl. 6 (r7r. § 697) 
start, stir*. — V fra •come forth, p r o c e e d *. — /rtf///xtf/ 
pret. indk. act 5 sg. Yt. 5.7. 

Av. 70 /. 

jfyaopna- (from l^/ir-, Gr. § 162): sb. n. 'deed, action '.—Ys. 57.4 ; 
, Vsp. 15 I, Yt. 5.9; Yt. Z4«5.— -[Skt. cyautnd'] 

Av. (7. 

ip^ri': adj. 'yeUow, golden*. — Cf. za^rLj^aoia-, •dJi/ra'^. 

[Skt. kdri'i Phi. «?r, garfn; New P. stf/'-] 
Ma'rL^aoia^ (from «• -f^) : adj. * golden-eared '.— Yt 14.9 (of a horse). 

[Cf. Phi taringei] 



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• JOS" '^ * " ' < ^ - ' " '. ' ^za'ri,ddifra zaya- 

tt^iri.49ipra' (from «• + </•): adj. 'golden-eyed' (epithet of Haoma, 
because of 'itt yellow flowefs). — Ys, 57.19. 

tain ah" (from V^/-): sb. n. * vigilance, watchfulness*. — Ys. 57.16. 
[Phi, Vers, has %inavandih\ 

izaotar^ (from '^\zu-y. sb. m. *invOker, priea^'. Title of the Zoroa- 
strian priest, later ZdU^^aoi zaotar'm ace. sg. *to the of5ciating 
priest' Yt. 5.132.— [Skt hoiar-; Phi. «d/J 

izaotar*: uncertain. — zaotSr9in acc< sg. Ys. xi.i. Perhaps 'keeper, 
drover'(?). Nar. has gfhxtaram * keeper, retainer ' ; Phi. V^s. 
transcribes as zdt (possibly zHt, cf. West & Haug, Arda Viraf 
Glossary p. 150). The reference in zaotHrtm is at all events to 
a man of the third class, since bSidnm and hS^rftn refer 
respectively to the warrior and priestly classes. 

zaofrd- (from yis//-): sb. f. * offering, oblation, libation' (esp. coja- 
secrated water).— Ys. 57.3 ; Yt. 5.8, 9 ; Yt. 14.5. 
[Skt. hotrd-; Phi. zihr; New P. zdr\ 

saofro,bara- ( from zaoprS- + '\fbar' ) : adj. < offering libations '. — 
Yt. 5-I32- 

'\f\zan-i vb, cl. x, 4 (i) 'beget, bear'; (2) *be bom' (intrans. and mid.). 

l-vj-^be born'. — zdnSUe pres. subj, mid. 3 sg. (on d, cf. 

Gr, § 478 N. 2) Ys. IX.6; zaymnti (cl. 4) pres. subj. mid. 3 pi. 
Ys. XI.6; usjzaydUe pres. subj. mid, 3 sg. Yd. 19. 5. — Cf. also 
azata't 2<wj///-. — [Skt. jan^; Phi. z&tan;. New P» zSdat^ 

yztan*: vb, cl. x 'know*. [-paiti ^recognize,, receive, wel- 
come '.—+ izt'a ' p e r c e i V e '. — •ai'fl.«tf»^« pres. (scdry.) subj, 
act. 3 pi. Yd. 6.45 ; paUi.za^id . pass, ptcpl. (adj.) nom. sg. m, 
Ys. 57*14,34. — Cf. also dza^'iiti', huzflftiu^, 

[Skt. jan-, jM-; cf. Phi. ddmstan; New P. ddnistan] 

zantu^ (from y"i«fl«-): sb. m. * tribe, town* {IjaX. gens) — the third 
largest division in the four-fold constitution of the Iranian state, 
viz. (i)nmdHa-, (2) vis-, (i)zantU', {4) da^yu'.'-^zaitiae^ abl. sg. 
*from that town* Ys. 57.14; za^t^ul gen. sg. Yt. 5.6. 
[Skt. jantu-; Phi. zand] 

zatttuma- (from zaf^tu-): adj. < belonging to or presiding over the 
tribe'.— Ys. aC.i. 

zam-, z'm-: sh,t (dcln. Gr, § 318) 'earth'. — zm nom. sg. Yd. 3.24,26,28; 
zqm ace. sg. Ys. 57. 23,33, Yd. 3.23,25,26,28; zPind paUi instr. 
sg. Yt. 5.3; z^mi paUi dat. sg. Yd. 6.5 1; z^mo gen. sg. Ys. xx.7. 
[Skt, jam-, jm-; Phi. zamik; New P. zarnt] 

zaya' (from Yzi-)*. sb. m.,n. < weapon, missile'. — Yd. 19.8,9. — Cf. also 
zaydtfma-, — [Phi. zdi] 



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Boyana — - xaxvApha ] 03 

«tf^<|i«tf- (from l/'si-, cf. Ay, zyam-, xim-, ^zaya *hiems'): adj. 'relatins^ 
to winter'; — sb. m. * winter '.^^Yt. 5.5 (see Gr. § 932 expl.). 
[Cf. Skt. AOyaHa'] 
zaydtfma- (superl. corresp. to noun saya- q. v.): adj. * best-armed '. — 

Yt. 14. 1. 
Y^^r-' vb. 'grow old, waste away'. — Cf. zrvan-^ 

[Skt. I jar-; cf. Phi. sSr; New P. zSr (Horn)] 
t^rapuHtra- (cf. uitra-): sb. m. nom. propr. ' Zarathoshtra, Zoroaster', 
Gk. ZcDpodaxpiQ^. The founder of the Avestan religion and pro- 
phet of ancient Iran.— Ys. xx.8; Ys. 26.5; Ys. 57-8; Yt. 5.1,7,9; 
Yt 14. 1 ; Yd. 3.23 ; Yd. 6.4S ; Yd. 19.5 seq. 

[Phi. zartult, zaratuhait ; New p'. zarduU etc.] 
uarapuUri' (from <•): adj. < Zarathushtrian, belonging to or descended 
from Zoroaster'. — sarafuUroil gen. sg. m. 'son of Z.' Ys. 96.5; 
%ara}uUri sravm ace. pi. n. 'words of Z.' {Gr, § 252) Ys, 57.4; 
tarapuhrayd voc» pi. ra. *ye followers of Z.* Vsp. 15.1. 
[Phi. nartMdn] 
Marafultrdtfrna- (superl. to A7ra/»i/ra-) : sb. m. * Zarathashtrotema ', 
the chief high-priest, Dastur i Dasturan; — adj. 'belonging to 
the Zarathushtrotema '. — Ys. 26.1 (fravaj^ayo), 
[Phi. saraiiiJtam] 
9aranya' (cf. za^ri-): adj. 'golden'; — sb. m. 'gold'. — zaranya instr. sg. 
m. Ys. 57.27 (horses' hoofs shod with gold). 
[Skt. hiravya-; Phi. zarin: New P. zarJn\ 
%^ranyd,aiwid&na' (from z* -{-a^widittui')'. adj. 'with golden bridle, 

or caparison', — Yt. 14.9. 
zaranyd,srva* (from z» •\- srvH') \ adj. 'golden-homed'. — Yt. 14.7. 
gar^zdaUi (from zard-^yda-): sb. f. 'laying to heart, heart's de- 
votion, propagation (of the Gospel)*. — Vsp. 15.2 (dat. sg.). 
Mard-: sb. n. (cf. Ys. 31.12) 'heart'. — See preceding word. 

[Skt Afd'i Phi. dU; New P. dil (cf. Horn)] 
sarl/va-: sb. m. 'stone*. — Cf. zaritvaina-, 
tarltvaina- (from zar^tva-, Gr. § 829) : adj. ' made of stone ' ; — sb. m. 

' stone *. —Yd. 6.46, $ee note. 
Zfkvana' (from yisx/-): sb. m. 'call, invocat or '. — Cf. savandjdsta-^ 

[Skt. kdvana-] 
zavano^sdsta^ (from z** •\' sdsta-)*, adj. 'commanded at call, at call 

when invoked'. — Ys. 5.9. 
zasta-: sb. m. 'hand*. — zastaya loc. sg. Ys. 57.31; zasiJ acc, pi. Vsp. 15.1. 

[Skt kdsta-; Old P. dasia-; Phi. das/; New P. dost] 
zazvapAa, see under Y'^'- 



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1 04 '' — ■'>''*• 

yfid*: vb. cl. 3 'get, obtain, win*. — zazvOtvka pf. ptcpl. act. nom. pi. 

* victorious' Yt. 5.132. 
zSia- (from yizau', pass, plcpl.): adj. *bom'. — Cf. atUlQ'* 

[Skt. yVI/4-/ Phi. ftf/l 
zdnSUe, sec under y"i aaw-. 
zanu-: sb. m. 'knee*. — Cf. minu-. 

[HVx, jdntt- ; Phi. zSnuk, jdnHk; New P. 2j/»/7] 
zd'Mi' (from "J/^i «tf«-}: ab. f * birth*. -Cf. hutdmii-, and husdmi- Yt; 5.87. 

[Skt. yji»H 

zdvar- (from l^2af»-); fcb. n. 'fleetness, vlg6r\--Ys. n.2; Ys. 57.26. 

[PhL 5i>/', zav&r; New P. a^r] 
zdvijli, see under )r^i 2^-. 

j/'s:/-: vb. * impel, drive'.— Cf. zainah-^ stf/0-."^[Skt hi-^ 
zindlt see under yfj'J-, z/-. 
iacf." particle posipos. *for, indeed, verily*. — Yt. X4.12; Vd. 3.24. 

[Skt. hi-\ 
zu^a: uncertain word. — Yt. 5.7, cf. also frazul^m Vl. 5.126, baro,zu$»m 
\'t. 19.4?, postiiibly also zula, ZPhl.Gi, p. 30. 2. Perhaps a special 
garment or adornment, possibly * bracelet' serving aUo as arm- 
prutector in the case of an archer. See representation of Ardvi 
Sura in Justi's Geschichte des alUn Persiens p. 94; and Dieu- 
lafoy's Per:»ian archers from Sui>a in the Louvre. 
YizH-: vb. cl. I (i) ♦call, invoke'; (2) *cry out, chide, curse' (euphe- 
mistic).— awz;<i'V/, •tf'V' pres. iudic. act. 3 sg., pi. Ys. xi.1,2,3 ; 
— zdvi^i aor. indie, mid. pass. 1 sg. (6V. g 664) Vd.. 19.6 (Phi. 
Ver.s. also has ' thy ancestors worshipped me, do thou also wor- 
ship me'). — See Ysdd- below. 

[Skt. //«7-, hfd-; cf. Phi dzhdyiht 'invocation, prayer' (Horn)] 
■|/"2;sf?-; vb. cl. x ♦ speed, hasten, drive'. — Cf. idvar^. 

[Skt. yi?-,- cf. Phi. z^f; New P. zad * quick'] 
z»md» z^ mi etc., see under zam-. 
zqpa- (from j/"ia««-): sb. m. * birth*. — Vt. 5.2 'Ardvi Sura purifies the 

wombs for child-bearing'. 
zqfft, see under zam; 

yfzbd-: vb. cl. 4 *.call, invoke \^z6ayemi pres. indie, act. i sg. Vs. aC.i, 
— See "^i £«- above. 

[Skt. Avd', ha-; Phi- dzbSyiht 'invocation, prayer' (Horn)] 
'[fzya't zi-: vb. cl. 9 {Gr, § 588) *take away, deprive forcibly '• — 
zifid^ pres. (scdry.) subj. act. 3 sg. Ys. H.5 (with two ace). 
[Skt./yJ., yV- (jimiiij; Old P. ui-; cf. Phi. zttdtdr (ZPhl.Gl.); 
New P. zintian] 



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stay ah' (from l/^sr/-): sb. n. 'sea, expanse of ocean*. Esp. the Sett 
Vourskaaha.— tf« ari(y5 ace. sg. * to the sea* Yt. 5.3; trayiti 
loc. sg. ifif, 8§ 341, 357 N. 2) Yt.5.4. 

[Cf. Skt. Jrdyas^: Old P. ttrayah-: IHil. ^o'J*/ New P. 
<^/#y/f (Horn)] 
"yfzri-: vb. cl. x *go, stretch, expand'.— Cf. cr/Tj^ff/i-.— (Skt. yWl 
zrvan* (from )/''i xor- q. v.): sb. n. 'time*. £sp. with uk^rufiu- {^.y^ 
' Bouodlass Time, Eternity '. In later Zoroastriani«m Ormazd and 
Ahriman are conceived of as sprung from Zarvan. — Vd. 19.9 
{Gr. § 992 N. 2 expU) — [PiiJ. zarvfin; New P. zarvlin\ 

^ Av. tU 1. 

i^fjfar- (side-form of Y^iat" q. v.): vb. cl. x <flow, run, stream'.^ 
■\'fra * flow {oxi\i\''^fraigaraUi pres. iodic, act. 3 sg. Yt. 5.4. 

Av. ir, (J, p* (»v) >^, ^, ^ f^>^ 

lAtf-, 4J-, /<7-.' dem. pron. (dcln. Gr, g 409) *this\ — ho nom. sg. m. 

Yji. 57.1^; ^rf nom. sg. f. Yt. 5.5. — See also 'ff-.^-[Skt. sO'. jtf-, id-^ 

xha^ (from liamt hm, cf. Gk. &-itXooc, I^at. semel) insep. prefix * together, 

one'.— Cf hak?r»f, hasopra- *— [Skt. /»•] 
ha^Pya- (from ^a^/- q. v., (7y. § 812): adj. 'rcaj, true, 'wry\-'ha*PTfn 
ace. sg. advl. ((^r. § 934) Essentially' Ys. xi.l. 
[Skt. taiyd-; OW P. haJhya-] 
ha^rva- (from \fh^r', Gr, § 819): adj. < whole, entire*.— Cf. ka^rvatdt-. 
[Skt. sdrva-; Old P. haruva-; Phi. ^ar, har^t^sp; New Pi -itfr] 
h^^rvatdt' (from hamrtHi", Gr, § 842): sb. f. 'wholeness, perfection, 
Haarvalat (Salvation). Cf. Gr. Introd. p. xxvi g ^y.— haf^rva/as 
nom. .sg. (6>. g 281) Ys. 57.24.— See am9r»tSt- above. 
[Skt. sarvdHU-; PW. ^/f^-c/a/; New P. fordad] 
haimS' (from V^^'-): 8b» f. *band, host, horde' (always in bad tense, 
ravaging samy),-^ hainiffyn dat. abl. pi. (Gr* g 247 expl.) Ys. 57.25. 
[Skt. sifid'/ Old P hainff^. Phi. h?u\ 
hadva-, haoya-: adj. *lcft, left side'.— /(Jyifw ace. sg. n. (Cr, g 63 

N. 2 expl.) Ys. 1 1.4. —-[Skt. jtft/^fl-/'Phl. koi] 
haomn^ (fr6m yii//-): sb. ni- * haoma-plant, juice, Haoma' (divinity). 
-Ys. X I.I, 3, 4, 7, 8; Ys. 57- 19; Vd. X9.9. 
[Skt. soma-; Phi. horn; New P. hdm'\ 
hAomanavha^ (from htt '\' mamaJk-, cf. Gr. g 60 N. c): adj. fwelK 
minded '.-«Yt. 5,8 (dat sg m.).— [Skt. sdumanasd-] 



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J 06 haomayo — hapta 

haomayd, see below, under adjective haomi-. 

kaomavafil' (from haoma •) : adj. * consisting^ of haoma '. — haomavaiti- 

byo zaofrS^yo dat. abl. f. pi. * haoma oblations' Yt. 5.8. 
[Skt sSmavant'; cf. Phi. homdmand] 
haomi' (from haoma-, cf. also Ys. 7.3): adj. * provided with haoma*. 

— haomayd Yt. 5.9, see note. 
haoya, see under hava-, 
Maozqfwa' (from huza^tu- q. v.): sb. n. 'gracious knowledge, reverence*. 

— haozqpwa instr. sg. Ys. 57.23. — [Phi. hazandih] 
kak9r»i (from 2 ha^ -\' ykar-): adv. (6V. §§ 375, 730) «once'. — Gf. 

Aai9r» f Jan-, --^[Ski. sakft] 
hak9r'i.jan- (from h" -f- j/ya/i-): adj. * killing at one stroke'. — Yt. 14.15 

(epithet of a boar). 
havuhar'na^ iP **™ V^ ' *•«/-) : sb. n . * jaw-bone ' (cf . paiU^,har»na'' 

^ J9.W ' ).^r-Aa»u/tar'He ace. du. Ys. 11.4,5. 
Y^ac-: vb. cl. I 'accompany, attend, follow'. \- upa ^attend'.— 

upavhacayeni caus. pres. subj. act. I sg. 'attach myself to' Yt. 5.8; 

hacimno pres. ptcpl. pass. nom. sg. m. ' attended by evil reports ' 

Ys. 11.1,3.— [Skt. sac'^ 
haca- (from "J/'^flr-): (i) prep. w. instr. abl. 'with, together with, from*; 

—(2) prefix, cf. haca,mana',—\i\\^ abl. Ys. a6.io; Ys. 57.12,14; 

Yt. 53' 7» 9, 132; Yt. X4.5; Vd. 19.6. 

[Skt. sdca; Old P. haca; Phi. aj ; New P. az, s] 
kaca.mana- (from haca + y w««-) : adj. ♦ attentive in thought '.— Yt. 5.8. 
hafra: adv. 'together, complete*. — See next word. —[Skt. satr<i\ 
haprd.nivahi' (from hafra -f- y"i^a«-) : sb. f. * complete conquest *• — 

Ys. 57.26. 
Yhad^: vb. cL x, 3 'sit, seat oneself. \-m 'descend to'. — w- 

iaphasH pres. indie, act. 3 sg. (Gr* § 754.3) Ys. 57.30. — Cf. also 

a^wiiastar-, 

[Skt. sad',' Old P. had^i Phi. ni-iastan; New P. ni-Sastan] 
hada-: (i) adv. 'always'; (2) prep. w. abl. instr. 'with'. — Ys. 57.17. 

[Skt. sahd, cf. sad&; Old P. hadH] 
haiijamana- (from ham -f- Y^^^"' jam-) : sb. n. * meeting *. — hattjamane 

loc. sg. Ys, ZI.2 (the race-course, or battle). 

[Cf. Skt sqgamd',' Phi. hanjaman; New P. anjuman] 
hatfl-, hat' (from "J/"! fl^-, pres. ptcpl.): adj. 'being, living being* 

creature*. — hStqm gen. pi. m. {Gr. § 18 N. 3) Yt. 5.9.— Cf. also 

^a«>ytf-. — [Skt. Ji»/-, sat'\ 
hapta: num. (Gr, § 366) 'seven'. — kartuqn yaii hapta 'the seven Karsh- 

vars' Yt. 5.5— [Skt. saptd; Phi. haft; New P. haft] 



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haptavhA^H hava- \ qj 

haptavhdm^ (from Aapia-\-Aa^iS' q.y,): adj. ' comprising seven chap* 

ters*; — sb. m. 'Yasna Haptanhaiti' (see Gr, Introd. p. xviii 

§ 13).— Ys. 57.22; Vsp. 15.2. — [Phi. ha/t'Mt] 
h ap ta,y a\iti- (from k<* + yaijlti-) : sb. m. * seven stalks ' (of barsom). — 

Ys, 57,6 (ace pL), see note. 
haptd,karivairfm, see under next word. 
kapto.karivan-' (from ^« + >&«): adj. * consisting of seven Karshvars 

or sones*. — hapt6Jiarfva*tfm ace. sg. fem. (Gr, § 855 expl.) 

Ys. 57.23. — [Phi. hafi-kelvaro] 
l/tam, Aqm, Aaffo: adv.. vbl. prefix {Gr. §§ 750, 753 N. 2) 'with, 

together*. — Cf. hama-, hampr^Pa-, hqmMlii, hatijamana-* 
[Skt. sdm; Old P. ham; Phi. ham; New P. ham\ 
^kam-: »b. f. 'summer'. — Cf. A^jwm-. — [Cf. Skt. sdmd- *year, season'] 
hama" (from ham): adj. 'same, entire'. — kamahe ... hamayA gen. sg. 

m. f. Ys. 57.31. — Cf. alsa hamd.\j[apra', 

[Skt samd-; Old P. hama-; Phi. ham&k; New P. hamaK\ 
hamapa" (from hama-, 6?r. §§ 844, 942): adv. 'continually'. — Yt. 5.5. 
Aamif,ffapra' (from hama- 4- {/«) : adj. ' all-powerful, monarch '• — 

Yt 14.13. 
ham^r'Pa- (from ^i/w -fy*ar-) : sb. m. 'adversary, foe'. — Ys. 57.26. 

[Cf. Skt sdmrti' 'conflict'] 
Y^ar^: vb. cl. 8 'guard'. \-ni 'keep guard over, preserve'. 

"-^ni^ha^roaUi pres. indie, act 3 sg. (Gr, § 754.2) Ys. 57.16. 

— Cf. also ha^rva-, har'tar-, har'Pra-, hilara-, 
hara*tt' (cf. harS-): sb. f. nom. propr. 'Haraiti', name of a mountain, 

Haraiti Bareza, Mount Alborz. — haraipyd gen. sg. (Gr, § 259) 

Ys. 57.19.21. 
harS-: sb. f. nomen propr. 'Hara', Mount Alborz in Masanderan, south 

of Caspian Sea. — Cf. haraUj; 
kar^tar- (from y^^r-): sb. m. 'guardian, keeper ',—^»r*/tf nom. sg, 

Ys. 57.15. 
har^pra* (from y^r-): sb. n. 'guarding'. — har'Prai dat sg. (infin.) 

Yt 5.6. 
YharM-: vb. cl. 6 'send forth, let go*. h/^'W 'strain, filter^ 

( haoma juice ). \-fra 'emit seed'. '•^fravhamiiiiqm pres, 

ptcpl. act gen. pi. m. 'of males that are in rut' Yt 14.12; %ao* 

Pr&byd pairiavharUibyd pass, ptcpl. dat. abl. pL f. (Gr, § 754. 3) 

Yt 5.8. — [Skt Mr/-/ Phi. hiitan; New P. }UUan\ 
hava- (side-form of hva-, ha- q. v.); poss. adj. pron. (Gr, § 440 N. i) 

'own*, Lat. suus. — haoym gen. sg. f. (Gr, §§ 440 N. i, 62.2) 

Ys. ii.i; kavaiibya pada^bya instr. du. Yd. 6.46. — [Skt rua-\ 



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I qS htuawra huka*ryn-' 

ha%aifrn-: num. sb. n. \Gr, § 374) < thousand'. — Vt. 5.4. — Sec also 
ne*l word. — •[Skt. takasra-; Phi. kazQr , New P. httt&r\ 

hazapro,stuna' (from A* -{- stuna--) : adj. *with s tbousand columns*. 
— Vs. Sf*2i *a huu^e of a thonsand columns*. 

fSkt. sahd^^ra'Sthatta-; Phi. hatar-stUn; cf. New P. kaiSr sutiin, 
name for Persepolis] 

h§, seft under ^a-^ ia-. 

ha'^ti'i sb. f. * section, chapter, Ha'. — Cf. haptavhmi: 

[Cf. pcrh. Skt. sm- (l/''^tf//-)i ^ Phi. //J// New P. AJ] 
'kSiriil' (prob. from y///iA-, Cr. § 777^: sb. f. * fenwilc *.— -Yt. 5.a (ace. 
and gen. pL). 

hatqm, see under katit: 

Advana' (from j/^i Aiy-): sb. m. 'mortar, havana* (in which the haoma 
was pounded). — Vd. 19.9 (instr. sg.). 

[Cf. Skt. sdvana'^; Phi. havan; New P. h^an^ 

hAv9y^ (from /w^tf-, id<7/«-): adj, ^\ftfX\—hit%iOya bSivo Vd. 3.25,26, 
sec note.— [Cf. Skt. savyd, Gr. § 60 N. d]. 

Y^i-: vb. *bind, span'.— Cf. kiia-, haeud-, Atf^'/w-. — [Skt. j/-] 

kit a- (from Y^ti)'- sb. m. *team, span of horses*. — Vs. S7.26 (dat. pi.). 

hii$(iu^: sb. m. nomen propr. * river, Indus '.-<-^/if<^ loc. gen. {Gr» 
§§ 265, 933 N.) Ys. $7.29, sec note. 

(Skt. simihU'; Old P. hi(n)dH'; PKl. kindokdn; New P. ^>irf] 

hiiara* (from Y^^'^' r^dupl): adj. 'keeping guard over'.— Ys. 57.17 
(with ace). 

hilta*te» see under yVJ-. 

Aiza-, hizvd-: sb. m. (Cr. § 220 N. i) 'tongue*. — w<i/ hkvo gen. abl. 
Yij. IX. 4, 5; hi%vd datthavke 'with skill of tongue* Vt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5. 
[Skt. jihud-; Phi. uivan, hmvSih ttavdn; New P. zaiiSn] 

hiivSr'na: uncertain word- — Yi. 5.6, see note ad loc. Similarly also 
now Darmesteter. 

him, At I, see under M 

km": prefix 'well, good*.— Cf. hukpr»ta-^t kuta^ta-, ktnnata'^ etc. 
[Skt. sh; Old P. //, uv; Phi. hi4\ 

Ylku"'. vb. dvS 'press out' (esp* extract haoma juice). — + «**?«>» •ex- 
tract'.— ii»W*4«/^w (c|* v«) darayeki ^witholdest me when ex- 
tracted' Ys. 11.3 («ee note on Phi. Vers.). — Cf. also haoma-, 
//^«/<7w J-. — [Skt. su*;. Phi. hMlniifin\ 

\'^zhu' (probably orig. conn, with Y^^**'Y ^'^** *^^' 9 (^''' ^9 S^J* 59 ») 
'generate, produce *.-«- [Skt. su-, jaC-J 

kukahya^: sb. n. nomen propr. 'Mukairya*, name of a mounlain.-.- 
Yt. 5.3. — [Phi, hukar, kt^gar] 



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kukn^to' — 3 ka- 109 

hukir^ta^ (from ku -f k$r»ta^ q. v.) : adj. ' welWmade '. - Vd. 19. 8, 9, see 
note — [Skt suklta-: PW. hukari\ 

kuk$r»pta' (from "yfkarp- = Skt. '\fkalp'>^\ adj. < well-formed, of per- 
fect litiaipt\-^fnwailm kuk9r*pt$mqnt superl. ace. sg. f. Yd. a6.2. 
[Skt. s^ipia-] 

kttjicpra- (from ^^f/^): adj. * having goodly power, rightly ruling'. 
— Vd. 19.9 (nom. pi. m., Amesha Spenlot).— «[Skt. sukJaira-] 

hutJna^Pra-^ (from ku ■{- 2 ij^opra-y. sb.h. * good knee' (Gr, § 882,1). 
— Hh^tiaopre kupaUihUne ace. du. (drandva cpd., Gr, § 879) 
*apoo his firm kuees and his sure feet' Vt. 14.13. — See ku* 
pafiiJt3na^ 

kuinfia- (from ku + tal/a-) : adj. *well-8hapen'.--Yt. 14.7,9. 
fSkt stUa/fa- ; Fhl. kutaji] 

kttddk' (from ku + t/dk- q, v.) : adj. * beneficent, benevolent '. — ^^ul ku* 
dOhfkd gen. sg. Ys. 26.4, see note; kudmwkd nom. pi. m. Vd. 19.9 
(Amesha Spentas). — [Cf. Skt. ^uMs-; PU. kudak] 

kupaUiitana- (from ku -\- paUiltSna-): sb. n. <8tirelbot' (Gr, § 882,1). 
— Yt. 14.13, sec ku^ffuiopra* above. 

kupSta* (from ku^-^ypa* q. v.): adj. 'well-kept, protected'. — J^aprll 
kupatoUmCb superl. nom. pi. f. Yt. 14.12. 

kumata- (from ku + tmiia-i pass, ptcpl. yman- q. v.) : adj. * well-thought'; 
— sb. n. 'good thought '.— Cf. frUyd^kuntata-. 
[Cf. Skt. sumati*: Phi. kttmtti, kHmat\ 

kuraoda* (from ku '\- raoda- q. v.); adj. 'fair of fbrm, beautifar.< — 
Ys. 57- 2, 5, 9, 25,26 (Sraosha); Ys. 57.3 (Nairyo-Sanha) ; Yt. I4.7i9 
(Strength); Vd. 3.24 (maiden). — [Phi. kardst] 

kuyaita- (from ku-^yalta-, pass. ptcpL Yy^*'* ^^' § '66): adj. 'well- 
offered'. — kuyaita yasna instr. sg. m. Yt 5.9; — kuyaHara- com- 
parative nom. sg. f. Yt. 5.9. 

kujka/ak-, •an (from Y^^P' <1- ▼•» P^- ptcpl. Gr. § 348, and Gr, § 95, 
correction): pf. ptcpl. adj. 'soundly sleeping'. — Ys. 57/17 'who 
has not slept sinn^e' (sc. at/i, as often w. pf. ptcpl.). 

kusai§iU' (from >&» 4- |/'2 s^</<-) ; adj. 'well-minded, wise'. — Cf. kaosq* 
/«ffl.. — [Cf. Phi. kasaPH/fk] 

kuzamii' (from hu 4- zdmi- q. v., cf. Skt. kdri*, i. karit*): adj. * having 
easy childbirth '. — Yt. 5.2 (ace. pi.). 

1 ka (in kG /rdifnd^ddhi'), see under kvar-. 

2 ka* (from Y^ ^''" 4- ^•)'- ^^' ^' * swine'. — ku (dissyllabic) kskrpa varSuike 

gen. sg. *in the shape of a wild boar' (lit. 'boar-pig') Yt I4>r5. 
— Cf. also variHH", 

[Skt. .c«- (in sakara- 'swine'); Phi. fak; New P. fak (Horn)] 



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no haita haj- 

ha^ta- (from hu Jf u^la-, pass, ptcpl. \fvac' q. v.): adj. 'well-spoken*; 
— sb. n. *good word'. — Cf. frdydJiOJ^ta', 
[Cr. Skt. siiktd-; Phi. -*i?#/] 

Jig, him, /iljf: pron. end. 3d pers. (6>. §§ 395, 1016 seq.) ♦he, it etc/ 
— Aim (ardvfm surqm) ace. sg. f. Yt. 5.1; — hg kam9r»d3m dat 
gen. sg. *his skull' Ys. 57.10; hi daraistikfm *liis glance' 
Yt. 14.13; upa hi haraUi dat. sg. f. *he bestows upon her' 
Vd. 3.25; kd hi asti cipa (Gr, % 1020 N.) Vd. 6.47; aiiada hi 
... nidar»tay9tt (perh. cf. Gr, § 1019 N.) Vd. 6.46; ndii hi ,.. 
apaMavdtu dainqm (dat. =t ace. sg. f. proleptic, Gr, § 1019N.) 
Vd. 19.7; uzdtln^m hi k9r*naot 'let one make a raised place or 
repository for them' (i. e. azdhU, Gr, § 10 19) Yt. 6.50; hi 
nidaptta * deposit them' (sc. azdbiS, Gr. § 1019) Vd. 6.51 ; — 
hii (i.e. vtspi karano) ace. pi. m. Vt. 5,4, 
fSkt. (Prakrit) si, sun end.] 

JidyUm, see under haeva-, haaya-, 

hqm, see under /iam» 

hqmin (from 2 ham-, Gr» %% 316, 835): adj. * relating to summer'; — 
sb. m. 'summer*. — hqminjmca zayantmca ace. sg. 'both summer 
and winter' (Cr. § 932 expl.) Yt. 5.5. — [Skt. hSmtn-] 

hqm.bfr'Pwa- (from ydar-, Gr, § 792 j: sb. f. 'collection, burden, 
harvest*. — Vd. 3.27 (ace. sg.), see nofc. 
[Cf. Phi. hamfiarafnijf] • 

hqm.'var'ti- (from hafn-\- y"«/flr-, Gr, § 788): sb. f. 'defense, courage'. 
Esp. na^re hqm,var*tii 'Manly Courage'. — Cf. hqm.var»tivatit-, 

hqm.vaftivatit' (from hqm,var*ii-) : adj. * endowed with manly cour- 
age'. — ^vato gen. sg. m. Vs. 57.33 (Sraosha). ■• 

hva-, ka* (cf. hava-): poss. pron. adj. {Gr, § 440 N. i) 'own, self, 
Lat. suus. See hava- above. — Cf. hSMairii-, hfaraoi^na-, hai' 
paipya- [Skt. svd-; Old P. uvi-^ 

hai** (from hva^, h^a-)\ prefix in cpds. 'self, own*. — Cf. ktupa'Pya-, 
[Cf. Skt. svay-Am; Old P. uvSh'l 

kaipa^Pya- (from h^ai- -{- pa^Pya-) : adj. *own, personal'. — htaipa^py&ca 
var*sa 'by his own hair* Vd. 6.46. 

[Cf. Skt. svapatyd-; cf. Old P. uvSipaiiya-] 

hvacah* (from hu-\-vacah-, Gr, § 68b): adj. 'whose word is gracious". 
— hvaca nom. sg. m. (Gr, § 339) Ys. 57.20. 
[Skt. suv&cas't Gr, § 17] 

'^'haj', hanj'i vb. cl. x 'encompass, embrace'. \-paWi 'surround'. 

"^pairi^halit^m ayavJiahe pass, ptcpl. ace. sg. ' though encompassed 
round with iron' Ys. 1 1.7, see note. — [Skt. svaj-, svahj-] 



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had' — kvarSta*^ \\\ 

Y^ad^, hdd-: vb. cl. i (trans.) 'make desirable, Bweeten*; (intiaas.) 

'be liked, desired, relished'. — See under Mlsta^. 

[Skt. svad-, sv&d-; Phi. JjvSstan 'wish'; New P. fvas/an] 
kanirapa-: sb. n. nomen propr. ^Hvaniratha', name of the central 

Karshvare, the zone on which men live. — Ys. 57.31. 
[PhL kvamras] 
Yhap-: vb. ^sle^^ slumber*. — See hullhafiih' pf. ptcpl., cf. next word. 
[Skt svap-; Phi. ivaftan, \uftan; New P. liuftan, fuspfdan] 
yhdbdS' (from ykup-, Gr. § 692): vb. cl. i, 10 *fall, asleep'. yava 

'drop asleep', cf. an-auaphabdimna- pres. ptcpl. mid. 
yi har-: vb. cl. x 'eat, drink, consume'.— Cf. har^pa-, Mjar-, kir'fl*' 

Avr-.— [PhK iyarian, Jfurtan; New P. iardan] 
y"2 har^: vb. 'shine, be bright*. — A root inferable from hvar-, har'nak^, 
Y'^har-: vb. 'consume, injure, wound*. Prob. originally the same as 

Yihar-* — See kara-, (also } ahar'ta^ ' unconsumed ' ). 
h, ar- (from y^hir-): sb. n. (dcln. Gr, § 333) 'sun*. — ha (dissyllabic) as 

gen. sg. in ha frdimdJdUi- q. v. Ys. 57.10,16. — Cf. also kvar»»-' 

dar'sya-, — [Skt. svar-; Phi. hvar, far; New P. J^r] 
hara- (from ^"3 A^tf r- q. v.): sb. m. 'wound*. — Ys. 57.10. 

[Phi. iar; cf. New P. iarak] 
kar'Pa-^ (from yI>^flr-)t sb. n. f. 'food'.— ^flr'^ nom. pi. n. f, (Gr* 

§ 232) 'food, victuals' Vd. 3.29.-— Cf. also har^poMWyO', 
[Cf. Phi. \vaH$n\ 
har*pd,bairya- (from *• -f ba^rya-) : adj. • fruit-bearing *. — Vd. 3.23 

(gen. pi. f.). 
hvar',dar*sya' (from Avar- + y"r/«r/-, Gr. § 716): adj. 'beheld by 

the sun, exposed to the sunlight '.- ^^sya ace. pi. n. (hg = 

azdbrl) Vd. 6.51. 
har'navuhofit" (from har'nah-): adj. * g\otiouB\—har»mi»tfhast9mo 

superl. nom. sg. m. Yt. 14.3. 
kar'nah' (from y2A'tfr-): sb. n. 'glory *.—Esp, kavaim har»nd 'the 

Kingly Glory', a divine light or halo supposed to be possessed 

by kings. — har»n6 ace. sg. Yt. 14.2; har'namha instr. sg. ((#r. 

§ 941) Ys. 57.3; Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.2,5. 

[Phi. ivarih; New P. iurrah, farrah] 
har^nti' (from y"i A^tfr-): sb. f. 'food' (esp. food other than grain). — 

— vispa^ har»niU ace. pi. 'all kinds of fruits* (pi.) Vd. 3.27; 

har'ntU Vd. 3.29. 
hvarlta- (from hu -\- varjfia- q. v.) : adj. 'well-done*; — sb. n. 'good 

deed'.— Ys. 57-4; Vsp. 15.1. — Cf. al.so /rayoMarjUa-. 
[Phi. havarft] 



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112 hvatia* — h&iar- 

hvasta- (from Au 4- asia-, pass, ptcpl. y2 ali^) : sb. m. (sc. i7//-) * a good 

arrow-sbot' (cf. Yt. 10.21). — hvastayU^ aivhimanaym (probably 

gen. du.) Ys. 57-28 
hvatpa- (from hu -^ aspa'): adj. <w«U«>hor8ed'.-*Yt. 5,4 (dat. 8g. m.) 

* for a man nioanted on a good horse '. 

[Ski. svdiva'; Old P. uvaspa-; Phi. Jiu-^sfi^ 
ykah": vb. cl. 10 'preM together*. \-paUi ' crush'.— /««>; havha* 

yeUi pres. indie, act. 3 sg. Ys. 57.10. 
h&.bar»zii (from //t'tf- 4- b-^) : sb. n. * own cushion *. — hn^afzii nidaifSta 

ace. sg. " deposit (the d«ad) upon his own cushion ' {fir. % 897) 

Vd. 6.51. 
hvarao^ina- (from hva- -^ rao^jlttaA', adj. *8elf-ahining'.—Ys. 57.21, 

Phi. Vets, has mm henn/Ifnan roiuno 'shining of itself 
[Cf. Skt. svdiocis'] 
hvd.vaijU' (from ktfa- -f vaija- q. v.) : adj. * striking of itself *. — Ys. 57.3 1 

(mth saa^pif), 
htS*stairii (jkom /tvo"^ s/a^ril ) : sb. n. *own bed, carpet'. — Vd. 6.51, 

se« note. 
hdsta- (from yjmd*, had^ q. v.): pass, ptcpl. adj. Miked, desired, scdi- 

cited' (?).—'jV'' fttqm hUslqm ndil ha^iahe Vs. ix.i. Uncertain. 

Phi. Vers, explains as * giving the cow to good people as a trea« 

sure' (^udsiak); Nar. has laksmyd. Prob. therefore, 'who doest 

not present me when desired (i. e. to worthy men), but fattenest 

me for thyself*. It can hardly mean 'cooked*. 
[Cf. Skt. siaUd-\ 
hd$ar' (for kar»lar^ from y Jv^ar-, Gr. § 164, and compensatory 3): 

sb. m. 'drinker*. — hs^rsm ace. sg. Ys. 11.3, allasion is to one 

of the priestly class who keeps the haoma from being drunk. 



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